Nerve Net

Publication Title: 
Consciousness and Cognition

Meditation comprises a series of practices mainly developed in eastern cultures aiming at controlling emotions and enhancing attentional processes. Several authors proposed to divide meditation techniques in focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) techniques. Previous studies have reported differences in brain networks underlying FA and OM. On the other hand common activations across different meditative practices have been reported.

Author(s): 
Sperduti, Marco
Martinelli, Penelope
Piolino, Pascale
Publication Title: 
Consciousness and Cognition

Meditation comprises a series of practices mainly developed in eastern cultures aiming at controlling emotions and enhancing attentional processes. Several authors proposed to divide meditation techniques in focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) techniques. Previous studies have reported differences in brain networks underlying FA and OM. On the other hand common activations across different meditative practices have been reported.

Author(s): 
Sperduti, Marco
Martinelli, Penelope
Piolino, Pascale
Publication Title: 
CNS spectrums

This article reviews the theory, clinical application, and empirical findings on mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for mental health and addictive disorders. Expanding upon the research demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for addiction, this article develops and explores the rationale for combining mindfulness-based interventions with evidence-based CBTs in treating addictive disorders, with an emphasis on substance use disorders with co-occurring mood disorders.

Author(s): 
Hoppes, Kimberly
Publication Title: 
Journal of Affective Disorders

BACKGROUND: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent anxiety disorder, but its neurobiological basis has been poorly studied. A few cognitive models have been proposed for understanding GAD development and maintenance. The aim of this study is to review functional Magnetic Resonance Image (fMRI) studies conducted with GAD patients and evaluate if they support and underpin the theoretical cognitive models proposed for this anxiety disorder. METHODS: A literature systematic review was undertaken in PubMed and ISI databases with no time limits.

Author(s): 
Mochcovitch, Marina Dyskant
da Rocha Freire, Rafael Christophe
Garcia, Rafael Ferreira
Nardi, Antonio E.
Publication Title: 
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

Attempts to correlate measures of intellectual ability with localized anatomical imaging features of the brain have yielded variable findings distributed across frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. To better define the gray and white matter correlates of intellectual ability and the effects of sex and age, we analyzed the brains of 105 healthy individuals, ages 7-57 years, who had a Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) of 70 or higher. We examined associations of FSIQ with cortical thickness and with white matter volume throughout the cerebrum.

Author(s): 
Goh, Suzanne
Bansal, Ravi
Xu, Dongrong
Hao, Xuejun
Liu, Jun
Peterson, Bradley S.
Publication Title: 
European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Alzheimer's disease (AD) appears to be a uniquely human condition, which is possibly attributable to our expanded longevity and peculiar capacity for episodic memory. Due to a lack of naturally-occurring animal model for investigating AD pathogenesis, our knowledge about the disease must be derived from correlational observation of humans, or from animal models produced by genetic manipulation of known risk factors in humans.

Author(s): 
Reid, Andrew T.
Evans, Alan C.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

Chronically stressed rodents who are allowed to eat calorie-dense "comfort" food develop greater mesenteric fat, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We tested whether similar relations exist in humans, at least cross-sectionally. Fifty-nine healthy premenopausal women were exposed to a standard laboratory stressor to examine HPA response to acute stress and underwent diurnal saliva sampling for basal cortisol and response to dexamethasone administration.

Author(s): 
Tomiyama, A. Janet
Dallman, Mary F.
Epel, Elissa S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: The authors present a model of the developmental psychopathology and neurobiology of Tourette's syndrome that provides a framework for ongoing research and treatment. METHOD: The model is based on clinical experience and a selective review of relevant scientific literature. RESULTS: During the past decade, Tourette's syndrome and related conditions have emerged as model disorders to study the interplay of genetic, neurobiological, psychological, and environmental factors during development.

Author(s): 
Cohen, D. J.
Leckman, J. F.
Publication Title: 
Psychiatria Danubina

This review focuses first on conceptual chaos and different connotations in psychosomatic medicine, then on new perspectives on comorbidity and multimorbidity, especially from epigenetics perspective. Comorbidity is one of the greatest research and clinical challenges to contemporary psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine. Recently altered gene expression due to epigenetic regulation has been implicated in the development of multifarious mental disorders and somatic diseases.

Author(s): 
Jakovljevi?, Miro
Reiner, Zeljko
Milici?, Davor
Crncevi?, Zeljka
Publication Title: 
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that protracted and excessive alcohol use induces an epigenetic dysregulation in human and rodent brains. We recently reported that DNA methylation dynamics are altered in brains of psychotic (PS) patients, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. Because PS patients are often comorbid with chronic alcohol abuse, we examined whether the altered expression of multiple members of the DNA methylation/demethylation network observed in postmortem brains of PS patients was modified in PS patients with a history of chronic alcohol abuse.

Author(s): 
Guidotti, Alessandro
Dong, Erbo
Gavin, David P.
Veldic, Marin
Zhao, Weihan
Bhaumik, Dulal K.
Pandey, Subhash C.
Grayson, Dennis R.

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