While yoga is gaining increased popularity in North America and Europe, its safety has been questioned in the lay press. The aim of this systematic review was to assess published case reports and case series on adverse events associated with yoga. Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, CAMBase, IndMed and the Cases Database were screened through February 2013; and 35 case reports and 2 case series reporting a total of 76 cases were included. Ten cases had medical preconditions, mainly glaucoma and osteopenia.
Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to review the literature regarding Withania somnifera (ashwagandha, WS) a commonly used herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Specifically, the literature was reviewed for articles pertaining to chemical properties, therapeutic benefits, and toxicity.
Effect of active molluscicidal components of Sapindus mukorossi and Terminalia chebula on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP) activity in the nervous tissue of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. In vivo and in vitro exposure of saponin (active component of S. mukorossi pericarp) and tannic acid (active component of T. chebula) significantly inhibited the AChE, ACP and ALP activity in the nervous tissue of L. acuminata.
Ageing in divergent animal phyla is influenced by several evolutionarily conserved signalling pathways, mitochondrial activity and various environmental factors such as nutrient availability and temperature. Although ageing is a multifactorial process with many mechanisms contributing to the decline, the intracellular accumulation of damaged proteins and mitochondria is a feature common to all aged cells.
Throughout life, organisms and their cells are subjected to various stressors which they must respond to adaptively in order to avoid disease and death. Accordingly, cells possess a variety of stress-responsive signaling pathways that are coupled to kinase cascades and transcription factors that induce the expression of genes that encode cytoprotective proteins such as protein chaperones (PC), growth factors and antioxidant enzymes.
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
It is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic modifications are critical factors in the regulation of gene expression. With regard to the nervous system, epigenetic alterations play a role in a diverse set of processes and have been implicated in a variety of disorders. Gaining a more complete understanding of the essential components and underlying mechanisms involved in epigenetic regulation could lead to novel treatments for a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions.
Research in the last decade has advanced our knowledge about biological factors underlying neurodevelopmental processes in childhood. Genetic research has gone beyond mapping the human genome to identifying epigenetic factors and explicating gene-environment interactions. Biological markers of vulnerability to specific disorders have been identified.
Alterations in the epigenetic modulation of gene expression have been implicated in several developmental disorders, cancer, and recently, in a variety of mental retardation and complex psychiatric disorders. A great deal of effort is now being focused on why the nervous system may be susceptible to shifts in activity of epigenetic modifiers.
Even the most powerful experimental designs in search of genetic causes of schizophrenia have not met the desired goal. It is imperative to review the reasons for such an outcome and to formulate novel strategies for the future direction of this research in the new era of individual genomes. Here, we will review aspects of neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia in the light of novel genomic and epigenomic insights. Specifically, we will argue for the involvement of de novo mutations and epigenetic modifications during neurodevelopment that may result in schizophrenia.
The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible (Gadd)45 proteins have been associated with numerous cellular mechanisms including cell-cycle control, DNA damage sensation and repair, genotoxic stress, neoplasia, and molecular epigenetics. The genes were originally identified in in vitro screens of irradiation- and interleukin-induced transcription and have since been implicated in a host of normal and aberrant central nervous system processes. These include early and postnatal development, injury, cancer, memory, aging, and neurodegenerative and psychiatric disease states.