Neural Conduction

Publication Title: 
Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the processing time and neuromuscular delay required to extract and process sensory information from the ankle in order to coordinate an upper extremity movement sequence. METHODS: Nineteen able-bodied subjects were tested on their ability to perform a motor task that involved extension of their left index finger when their left ankle was passively plantar flexed at random velocities through a predetermined target angle. RESULTS: We found that the able-bodied subjects were able to adjust their finger responses up to ankle velocities of 70 degrees /s (300 ms).

Author(s): 
Shields, Richard K.
Madhavan, Sangeetha
Cole, Keith R.
Brostad, Jared D.
Demeulenaere, Jeanne L.
Eggers, Christopher D.
Otten, Patrick H.
Publication Title: 
Current Medicinal Chemistry

The development of neuroactive drugs is a time consuming procedure. Candidate drugs must be run through a battery of tests, including receptor studies and behavioural tests on animals. As a rule, numerous substances with promising properties as assessed in receptor studies must be eliminated from the development pipeline in advanced test phases because of unforeseen problems like intolerable side-effects or unsatisfactory performance in the whole organism. Clearly, test systems of intermediate complexity would alleviate this inefficiency.

Author(s): 
Drexler, B.
Hentschke, H.
Antkowiak, B.
Grasshoff, C.
Publication Title: 
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira De Pesquisas M�dicas E Biol�gicas / Sociedade Brasileira De Biof�sica ... [et Al.]

Terpineol, a volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity, is widely used in the perfumery industry. It is an important chemical constituent of the essential oil of many plants with widespread applications in folk medicine and in aromatherapy. The effects of terpineol on the compound action potential (CAP) of rat sciatic nerve were studied. Terpineol induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 100 microM, terpineol had no demonstrable effect.

Author(s): 
Moreira, M. R.
Cruz, G. M.
Lopes, M. S.
Albuquerque, A. A.
Leal-Cardoso, J. H.
Publication Title: 
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira De Pesquisas M�dicas E Biol�gicas / Sociedade Brasileira De Biof�sica ... [et Al.]

Estragole, a relatively nontoxic terpenoid ether, is an important constituent of many essential oils with widespread applications in folk medicine and aromatherapy and known to have potent local anesthetic activity. We investigated the effects of estragole on the compound action potential (CAP) of the rat sciatic nerve. The experiments were carried out on sciatic nerves dissected from Wistar rats.

Author(s): 
Leal-Cardoso, J. H.
Matos-Brito, B. G.
Lopes-Junior, J. E. G.
Viana-Cardoso, K. V.
Sampaio-Freitas, A. B.
Brasil, R. O.
Coelho-de-Souza, A. N.
Albuquerque, A. a. C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditionally, Acorus calamus has been used for the treatment and management of headache, migraine, body ache and severe inflammatory pain in the Unani, Ayurveda and Indian system of medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: Present study focuses on the evaluation of saponin rich extract of Acorus calamus (SRE-AC) in chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain and neuronal functional changes in rats.

Author(s): 
Muthuraman, Arunachalam
Singh, Nirmal
Publication Title: 
The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics

In order to assess the relation between limited joint mobility (LJM) and peripheral nerve function in diabetic children, peroneal nerve amplitude and motor conduction velocity as well as sural nerve amplitude and distal latency were measured with a Medelec MSG electromyograph. LJM was examined by observing the hands in the prayer position of 60 unselected diabetic children (average age 11.2 +/- 3.1 years; mean duration of diabetes 4.1 +/- 3 years) and 31 healthy controls. Of 60 patients, 38.3 percent had limited joint mobility. no influence of sex on expression of LJM was found.

Author(s): 
Fiçicioğlu, C.
Kiziltan, M.
Aydin, A.
Baslo, P.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

The purpose of these studies was to determine the role of gracile nucleus and the effects of l-arginine-derived nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the nucleus on the cardiovascular responses to electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Zusanli" (ST36). Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored during EA stimulation of ST36 following microinjections of agents into gracile nucleus. EA ST36 produced depressor and bradycardiac responses in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats.

Author(s): 
Chen, Shuang
Ma, Sheng-Xing
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

In diabetes, activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is an important effector of oxidative-nitrosative injury, which contributes to the development of experimental diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). However, the potential toxicity of complete PARP inhibition necessitates the utilization of weaker PARP inhibitors with additional therapeutic properties. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) is a weak PARP inhibitor, antioxidant, and calcium modulator and can improve energy status and inhibit cell death in ischemic tissues.

Author(s): 
Stevens, M. J.
Li, F.
Drel, V. R.
Abatan, O. I.
Kim, H.
Burnett, D.
Larkin, D.
Obrosova, I. G.
Publication Title: 
Diabetes

OBJECTIVE: Activation of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway with secondary neurovascular deficits are implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The aim of this study was to explore the interrelationships between hyperglycemia, activation of the COX-2 pathway, and oxidative stress and inflammation in mediating peripheral nerve dysfunction and whether COX-2 gene inactivation attenuates nerve fiber loss in long-term experimental diabetes.

Author(s): 
Kellogg, Aaron P.
Wiggin, Tim D.
Larkin, Dennis D.
Hayes, John M.
Stevens, Martin J.
Pop-Busui, Rodica
Publication Title: 
The Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Spinal manipulation (SM) is a form of manual therapy used clinically to treat patients with low back and neck pain. The most common form of this maneuver is characterized as a high-velocity (duration <150 ms), low-amplitude (segmental translation <2 mm, rotation <4 degrees , and applied force 220-889 N) impulse thrust (high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation [HVLA-SM]).

Author(s): 
Pickar, Joel G.
Sung, Paul S.
Kang, Yu-Ming
Ge, Weiqing

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