A study was made of the changes in the bioelectrical activity of the muscles in the course of local static work up to "refusal" under the usual conditions and under condition of inhibition of the program-control function of the cortex (during the somnambulistic stage of hypnosis). Experimental results indicated that during the hypnotic state the time of persistence of the static effort doubled in comparison with control; the bioelectrical activity increased 1 1/2-2 times, and in individual experiments--3--4 times.
The possibility of abolishing pain during operations by needling acupuncture points was detected in China 20 years ago. During the last years the Western World showed great interest in this method, which was tested in a great number of surgical operations. Acupuncture was successful, especially when it was introduced by a short conventional anesthesia. Of special importance seems the possible reduction of anesthetic agents.
Zhurnal Nevropatologii I Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova (Moscow, Russia: 1952)
A study was made of brain bioelectric activity in patients with secondarily generalized epilepsy under hypnosis. The disease manifestations were dependent on whether the site of the focus was in the right or in the left hemisphere. Hypnotic trance changes the neurodynamics of the focus and the level of interhemispheric relations, which depends on the focus lateralization.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most prominent of the inhibiting neurotransmitters in the brain. It exerts its main action through GABAA receptors. The receptors respond to the presence of GABA by the opening of an intrinsic anion channel. Hence, they belong to the molecular superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels. There exist in the brain multiple GABAA receptors that show differential distribution and developmental patterns. The receptors presumably form by the assembly of five proteins from at least three different subunits (alpha 1-6, beta 1-3 and gamma 1-3).
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Fifteen adults with chronic low back pain (M = 4 years), age 18 to 43 years (M = 29 years), participated. All but one were moderately to highly hypnotizable (M = 7.87; modified 11-point Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C [Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962]), and significantly reduced pain perception following hypnotic analgesia instructions during cold-pressor pain training.
Tonic immobility (TI), also known as death feigning or animal hypnosis, is a reversible state of motor inhibition that is triggered by postural inversion and/or movement restraining maneuvers but also by repetitive stimulation and pressure on body parts. Our previous studies demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation of the central amygdala (CEA) decreases the duration of TI in guinea pigs. Some reports have demonstrated that electrical or chemical stimulation of the CEA promotes antinociception.
The aim of the experiment was to study possible differences between the kinematic strategies for the "involuntary" arm lowering of hypnotized highly susceptible subjects (H-Highs) and for the voluntary movement of non-hypnotizable simulators (Sims) during suggestions of arm heaviness (Part I). In addition, a comparison between awake susceptible subjects (W-Highs) and H-Highs was carried out to clarify the specific role of the hypnotic state and hypnotizability (Part II).
General anaesthetics cause sedation, amnesia and hypnosis. Although these clinically desired actions are indicative of an impairment of neocortical information processing, it is widely held that they are to a large part mediated by subcortical neural networks. Anaesthetic action on brain stem, basal forebrain and thalamus, all of which are known to modulate cortical excitability, would thus ultimately converge on neocortex, perturbing and reducing action potential activity therein.