Acupuncture has been used for patients with stroke and post-stroke rehabilitation for thousands of years. Previous studies reported that acupuncture enhanced stroke recovery through neurogenesis. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for preclinical studies to assess the current evidence for acupuncture effect on neurogenesis in treating ischaemic stroke.
Sirtuins are NAD-dependent protein deacetylases known to have protective effects against age-related diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In mammals, there are seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7), which display diversity in subcellular localization and function. While SIRT1 has been extensively investigated due to its initial connection with lifespan extension and involvement in calorie restriction, important biological and therapeutic roles of other sirtuins have only recently been recognized.
Proteostasis is critical for maintaining cell function and proteome stability may play an important role in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) immortality. Notably, hESC populations exhibit a high assembly of active proteasomes, a key node of the proteostasis network. FOXO4, an insulin/IGF-1 responsive transcription factor, regulates proteasome activity in hESCs. We find that loss of FOXO4 reduces the potential of hESCs to differentiate into neural lineages. Therefore, FOXO4 crosses evolutionary boundaries and links hESC function to invertebrate longevity modulation.
Lipocalins are a family of proteins characterized by a conserved eight-stranded ?-barrel structure with a ligand-binding pocket. They perform a wide range of biological functions and this functional multiplicity must relate to the lipid partner involved. Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) and its insect homologues, Lazarillo (Laz) and neural Lazarillo (NLaz), share common ancestral functions like longevity, stress resistance and lipid metabolism regulation, coexisting with very specialized functions, like courtship behavior.
Adult neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are negatively and positively regulated by a broad range of environmental stimuli that include aging, stress, social interaction, physical activity, and dietary modulation. Interestingly, dietary regulation has a distinct outcome, such that reduced dietary intake enhances neurogenesis, whereas excess calorie intake by a high-fat diet has a negative effect. As a type of metabolic stress, dietary restriction (DR) is also known to extend life span and increase resistance to age-related neurodegenerative diseases.
The adult brain is much more resilient and adaptable than previously believed, and adaptive structural plasticity involves growth and shrinkage of dendritic trees, turnover of synapses, and limited amounts of neurogenesis in the forebrain, especially the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Stress and sex hormones help to mediate adaptive structural plasticity, which has been extensively investigated in the hippocampus and to a lesser extent in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, all brain regions that are involved in cognitive and emotional functions.
Depression is a prevalent, highly debilitating mental disorder affecting up to 15% of the population at least once in their lifetime, with huge costs for society. Neurobiological mechanisms of depression are still not well known, although there is consensus about interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Antidepressant medications are frequently used in depression, but at least 50% of patients are poor responders, even to more recently discovered medications.
The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry: The Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry
OBJECTIVES: Major depression is a complex disorder that involves genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors in its aetiology. Recent research has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in antidepressant action. However, careful examination of the literature suggests that the complex biological and psychological changes associated with depression cannot be attributed to disturbance in hippocampal neurogenesis alone.
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions affecting numerous individuals in the world. However, the currently available antidepressant medication shows low response and remission rates. Thus, new antidepressants need to be discovered or developed. Aiming to describe the current neurobiological hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of depression and in order to give an overview of novel possible antidepressant drug targets, we reviewed publications and studies referring to the neurobiology of depression.
Mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons are located in the ventral mesodiencephalon and are involved in psychiatric disorders and severely affected in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. mdDA neuronal development has received much attention in the last 15 years and many transcription factors involved in mdDA specification have been discovered.