BACKGROUND: OnabotulinumtoxinA has demonstrated significant benefit in adult focal spasticity. This study reviews the injection patterns (i.e., muscle distribution, dosing) of onabotulinumtoxinA for treatment of adult spasticity, as reported in published studies. METHODS: A systematic review of clinical trials and observational studies published between 1990 and 2011 reporting data on muscles injected with onabotulinumtoxinA in adult patients treated for any cause of spasticity.
BACKGROUND: Adequate relief from low-back pain (LBP) is not always possible. Emerging evidence suggests a role for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections in treating pain disorders. Proponents of BoNT suggest its properties can decrease muscle spasms, ischemia and inflammatory markers, thereby reducing pain. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of botulinum toxin injections in adults with LBP.
BACKGROUND: Drooling is a common problem for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This can be distressing for these children as well as for their parents and caregivers. The consequences of drooling include risk of social rejection, damp and soiled clothing, unpleasant odour, irritated chapped skin, mouth infections, dehydration, interference with speech, damage to books, communication aids, computers, and the risk of social isolation (Blasco 1992; Van der Burg 2006). A range of interventions exist that aim to reduce or eliminate drooling.
During general anesthesia drugs are administered to provide hypnosis, ensure analgesia, and skeletal muscle relaxation. In this paper, the main components of a newly developed controller for skeletal muscle relaxation are described. Muscle relaxation is controlled by administration of neuromuscular blocking agents. The degree of relaxation is assessed by supramaximal train-of-four stimulation of the ulnar nerve and measuring the electromyogram response of the adductor pollicis muscle.
BACKGROUND: Injections of botulinum toxin type A are extremely effective in treating palmar hyperhidrosis. The main problem is pain during injections in the palms and pulp of the fingers. Anaesthesia of the hands using Emla and analgesia with an equimolar mixture of oxygen/nitrous oxide are occasionally disappointing. We analysed the value of hypnosis in reducing injection pain.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of the aroma of essential oil of lavender against placebo on subjects' pain perceptions and levels of anxiety when undergoing elective cosmetic facial injections of botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX(�) COSMETIC) for the correction of glabellar wrinkles. METHODS: Subjects (N=30) who had not previously received any cosmetic facial injections were randomized to essential oil of lavender aroma exposure or to placebo during elective cosmetic facial injections of BOTOX(�) (12 U) for the correction of glabellar wrinkles.
In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group.
Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova / Ministerstvo Zdravookhraneniia I Meditsinskoĭ Promyshlennosti Rossiĭskoĭ Federatsii, Vserossiĭskoe Obshchestvo Nevrologov [i] Vserossiĭskoe Obshchestvo Psikhiatrov
Twenty-seven patients with pain due to the imbalance of the body were examined. Clinical evaluation of patients before and after treatment included a general orthopedic examination, computer optical topography, surface electroneuromyography. The main group (17 patients) received injections of the drug lantoks in spastic muscles, the control group received a standard set of treatment to relieve spasticity (massage, exercise therapy, FTL, pharmacotherapy).
STUDY DESIGN: A randomized clinical trial. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of medical and chiropractic care for low back pain patients in managed care; to assess the effectiveness of physical therapy among medical patients; and to assess the effectiveness of physical modalities among chiropractic patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Despite the burden that low back pain places on patients, providers, and society, the relative effectiveness of common treatment strategies offered in managed care is unknown.
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics of patients who take muscle relaxants for back pain after seeking care and to determine the relationship of muscle relaxant use with recovery from the episode of low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Low back pain is a common condition with a generally favorable short-term prognosis. Physicians in the acute setting commonly prescribe muscle relaxants. The indications for use and outcomes are not clear.