Neuropeptides

Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Only a small number of articles have investigated the relationship between mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) and biomarkers. The aim of this systematic review was to study the effect of MBIs on specific biomarkers (cytokines, neuropeptides and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in both healthy subjects and cancer patients. METHODS: A search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library between 1980 and September 2016. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies with 1110 participants were included.

Author(s): 
Sanada, Kenji
Alda Díez, Marta
Salas Valero, Montserrat
Pérez-Yus, María C.
Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.
Montero-Marin, Jesús
García-Toro, Mauro
García-Campayo, Javier
Publication Title: 
Southern Medical Journal

BACKGROUND: In 1983, the Southern Medical Journal advised its readers that a scientific basis might underlie the popular practice of ancient Chinese acupuncture. Recent studies have proven this to be correct, and a 1997 National Institutes of Health consensus panel recommended acupuncture as a useful clinical procedure. METHODS: Pertinent articles in the literature were reviewed, including our own research. Significantly, we had access to recent important studies from China.

Author(s): 
Ulett, G. A.
Han, J.
Han, S.
Publication Title: 
Southern Medical Journal

BACKGROUND: In 1983, the Southern Medical Journal advised its readers that a scientific basis might underlie the popular practice of ancient Chinese acupuncture. Recent studies have proven this to be correct, and a 1997 National Institutes of Health consensus panel recommended acupuncture as a useful clinical procedure. METHODS: Pertinent articles in the literature were reviewed, including our own research. Significantly, we had access to recent important studies from China.

Author(s): 
Ulett, G. A.
Han, J.
Han, S.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans continues to serve as a useful model of life extension caused by dietary restriction. Using this model, downstream effectors of dietary restriction-induced longevity have been elucidated, including neuropeptides and cell-surface receptors. Although it remains possible that different forms of dietary restriction may utilize both specific and overlapping mechanisms to promote longevity, the nematode model has revealed roles for autophagy, metabolic energy-sensing and the hypoxic response.

Author(s): 
Cypser, James R.
Kitzenberg, David
Park, Sang-Kyu
Publication Title: 
Endocrine Journal

Behavior is shaped by a variety of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, including those underlying anxiety and fear. Neuropeptides are ideal candidates to be involved in the regulation of emotional facets as they are released within the brain and act as neuromodulators/neurotransmitters; furthermore, their large number is prone to direct changes by mutations.

Author(s): 
Landgraf, R.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs (London, England: 2000)

Recent studies have demonstrated a role for appetite- and volume-regulating neuropeptides in alcohol dependence, particularly in association with alcohol craving. The peptides leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, vasopressin and the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) have been of particular interest because of their central effects on various brain circuits, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. In addition, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) plays an important role in linking appetite regulation with the HPA axis.

Author(s): 
Hillemacher, Thomas
Kahl, Kai G.
Heberlein, Annemarie
Muschler, Marc An
Eberlein, Christian
Frieling, Helge
Bleich, Stefan
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

The present review/perspectives article provides a short overview of our current understanding of the molecular genetics of personality. In the first part, the most important gene candidates such as COMT or SLC6A4 gene are presented. Since several seminal review studies have recently been published on different facets of molecular genetics and personality/emotionality, we focus the second half of the present article on new relevant research directions. This includes a stronger focus on animal research based testing of candidate genes (e.g.

Author(s): 
Montag, Christian
Reuter, Martin
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The PCLO rs2522833 candidate polymorphism for depression has been associated to monoaminergic neurotransmission. In healthy and currently depressed individuals, the polymorphism has been found to affect activation of brain areas during memory processing, but no direct association of PCLO with memory bias was found. We hypothesized that the absence of this association might have been obscured by current depressive symptoms or genetically driven individual differences in reactivity to stressful events.

Author(s): 
Vrijsen, Janna N.
Speckens, Anne
Arias-V·squez, Alejandro
Franke, Barbara
Becker, Eni S.
van Oostrom, Iris
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Psychiatry

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Well-functioning romantic relationships are important for long-term health and well being, but they are often difficult to sustain. This difficulty arises (in part) because of an underlying tension between our psychobiological natures, culture/environment, and modern love and relationship goals. One possible solution to this predicament is to intervene at the level of psychobiology, enhancing partners' interpersonal connection through neurochemical modulation.

Author(s): 
Wudarczyk, Olga A.
Earp, Brian D.
Guastella, Adam
Savulescu, Julian
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

BACKGROUND: One underexploited property of anesthetics is their ability to probe neuronal regulation of arousal. At appropriate doses, anesthetics reversibly obtund conscious perception. However, individual anesthetic agents may accomplish this by altering the function of distinct neuronal populations. Previously the authors showed that isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit orexinergic neurons, delaying reintegration of sensory perception as denoted by emergence. Here the authors study the effects of halothane.

Author(s): 
Gompf, Heinrich
Chen, Jingqiu
Sun, Yi
Yanagisawa, Masashi
Aston-Jones, Gary
Kelz, Max B.

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