European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
In bipolar disorders, there are unclear diagnostic boundaries with unipolar depression and schizophrenia, inconsistency of treatment guidelines, relatively long trial-and-error phases of treatment optimization, and increasing use of complex combination therapies lacking empirical evidence. These suggest that the current definition of bipolar disorders based on clinical symptoms reflects a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous entity.
Genetics and neuropsychology have historically been 2 rather distant and unrelated fields. With the very rapid advances that have been taking place in genetics, research and treatment of disorders of cognition in the 21st century are likely to be increasingly informed by individual differences in genetics and epigenetics. Although neuropsychologists are not expected to become geneticists, it is our view that increased training in genetics should become more central to training in neuropsychology. This relationship should not be unidirectional.
This review discusses neurobiological and psychosocial factors associated with stress-induced depression and compares these factors with those believed to characterize stress resilience. Neurobiological factors that are discussed and contrasted include serotonin, the 5-HT1A receptor, polymorphisms of the 5-HT transporter gene, norepinephrine, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, neuropeptide Y, polymorphisms of the alpha-2 adrenergic gene, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, and CRH receptors.
This paper aims primarily at two things: The first is to present an overview of the newly developed field of "neuroarchaeology" and discuss its theoretical grounding in Material Engagement Theory (MET) and the extended mind hypothesis.
OBJECTIVE: The authors propose a diathesis-stress model to describe how pathological dissociation may arise from an interaction between innate hypnotizability and traumatic experience. METHOD: To support the proposition that pathological dissociation may reflect autohypnotic process, the authors highlight clinical and research data indicating parallels between controlled hypnotic dissociative states and uncontrolled pathological dissociative symptoms and summarize evidence of hypnotizability in persons with psychiatric disorders that manifest these symptoms.
Hypnosis has become routine practice in our plastic and endocrine surgery services. Revivication of pleasant life experiences has served as the hypnotic substratum in a series of over 1650 patients since 1992. In retrospective studies, followed by randomised prospective studies, we have confirmed the usefulness of hypnosedation (hypnosis in combination with conscious IV sedation) and local anaesthesia as a valuable alternative to traditional anaesthetic techniques.
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
This article presents a case study of a 39-year-old European American married woman with a history of child and adolescent incest,marital rape, and physical abuse from her husband for more than 10 years. She was referred to a pain clinic for treatment of headaches and Tourette's syndrome. The client was evaluated with the Ackerman-Banks Neuropsychological Rehabilitation Battery to identify neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses. The Vulnerability to Stress Audit was used to identify life events that were positively and negatively influencing her life.
The present paper intends to briefly review the most important concepts of the modern neuropsychology of the frontal lobes, and to relate these findings to the phenomenology usually encountered in hypnosis research and practice. The frontal lobes have been studied very intensively during the last several years and some of the results, including the syndromes described in frontal-lobe lesions and psychiatric patients, demonstrate striking similarity with hypnotic phenomena.
This study examined the fundamental question, whether verbal memory processing in hypnosis and in the waking state is mediated by a common neural system or by distinct cortical areas. Seven right-handed volunteers (25.4 years, sd 3.1) with high-hypnotic susceptibility scores were PET-scanned while encoding/retrieving word associations either in hypnosis or in the waking state. Word-pairs were visually presented and highly imaginable, but not semantically related (e.g. monkey-street). The presentation of pseudo-words served as a reference condition.
Neglect patients are not aware of stimuli in the contralesional space. We aimed to simulate neglect-like behaviour in healthy participants, by asking them to orient their visuospatial attention in two conditions: non-hypnotic suggestion and post-hypnotic suggestion. Results showed that directing visuospatial attention to one side of space caused neglect of stimuli in the opposite side of space, but only when participants were under post-hypnotic suggestion.