For some neurobiologists, present biological descriptions of the brain may integrate the theoretical frame initiated by Freud. The recent acquisitions of neurobiology prove a plasticity of the neural network anabling the inscription of the experiment. The neuroplasticity constitutes the cornerstone of the reconciliation between the psychoanalysis and neurosciences. The brain must not be considered as a rigid organ, determined and determining but well as a dynamic structure, in constant rebuilding. Contrary to the genetic determinism, the plasticity involves diversity and singularity.
Every individual experiences stressful life events. In some cases acute or chronic stress leads to depression and other psychiatric disorders, but most people are resilient to such effects. Recent research has begun to identify the environmental, genetic, epigenetic and neural mechanisms that underlie resilience, and has shown that resilience is mediated by adaptive changes in several neural circuits involving numerous neurotransmitter and molecular pathways.
The orchestrated expression of genes is essential for the development and survival of every organism. In addition to the role of transcription factors, the availability of genes for transcription is controlled by a series of proteins that regulate epigenetic chromatin remodeling. The two most studied epigenetic phenomena are DNA methylation and histone-tail modifications.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
This article provides a selective review of the neuroscience and child-psychoanalytic literature, focusing on areas of significant overlap and emphasizing comprehensive theories in developmental neuroscience and child psychoanalysis with testable mechanisms of action.
Epigenetics, broadly defined as the regulation of gene expression without alteration of the genome, has become a field of tremendous interest in neuroscience, neurology, and psychiatry. This research has rapidly changed the way researchers think about brain function. Exciting epigenetic discoveries have been found in addiction, early life stress, neurodegeneration, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression.
This review provides an overview of the field of social neuroscience from a European perspective and focuses mainly on outlining research topics which originated in European laboratories. After a brief historical synopsis of the emergence of this young field, the most relevant findings related to the investigation of the neural networks underlying our capacity to understand the minds of others are summarized.
My tenure at NIMH was an exhilarating, heady time of great satisfaction and achievement for all of us at the Institute. I have great affection and loyalty for NIMH, but my fondest memories are of the individuals who led and staffed the Institute's programs while I was there. One of the most gratifying aspects of my tenure was the opportunity to recruit and appoint people to new responsibilities and to interact with and support them as they grew into and beyond their positions of leadership within NIMH.
Psychopathology, mental illness, and psychiatric treatment are concepts relevant to modern medicine and medical psychology and replete with cumbersome intellectual and literary baggage. They bear the imprint of suppositions, world views, and general beliefs and values exemplified in the science, history, and general culture of Anglo European societies.
In this paper, we will examine and untangle a conflict mainly between a developmental psychologist, Martin Hoffman and a social psychologist, Daniel Batson. According to Hoffman, empathic distress, a vicarious feeling through empathy, is transformed into an altruistic motivation. Batson and others on the other hand, criticize Hoffman, claiming that empathic altruism has no relation with empathic distress.