Neurotoxicity Syndromes

Publication Title: 
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

PURPOSE: Chemoneuropathy remains a painful, burdensome complication of cancer treatment for patients receiving a range of chemotherapeutics, yet the cause and persistence of this condition are not fully documented. This study was designed to quantify the longevity of and contributions to neuropathy following treatment with the plant alkaloids paclitaxel and vincristine.

Author(s): 
Boyette-Davis, Jessica A.
Cata, Juan P.
Driver, Larry C.
Novy, Diane M.
Bruel, Brian M.
Mooring, Deidre L.
Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen
Kennedy, William R.
Dougherty, Patrick M.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Oxydemeton-methyl, an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide produced decrease in the exploratory behaviour and prolongation of barbitone sodium-induced hypnosis after intermittent aerosol spray inhalational exposure for 1 h in rats compared to the saline control group. Further, CD50 +/- S.E.M. value for pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and CI50 +/- S.E.M. value for electroshock (i.e. the dose of PTZ and intensity of electroshock producing positive seizure response in 50% of rats) were significantly decreased by acute exposure to oxydemeton-methyl compared to that of saline control group.

Author(s): 
Kansal, D. K.
Chakrabarti, A.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

We recently described a screening system designed to detect neurotoxicity of artemisinin derivatives based on primary neuronal brain stem cell cultures (G. Schmuck and R. K. Haynes, Neurotoxicity Res. 2:37-49, 2000). Here, we probe possible mechanisms of this brain stem-specific neurodegeneration, in which artemisinin-sensitive neuronal brain stem cell cultures are compared with nonsensitive cultures (cortical neurons, astrocytes). Effects on the cytoskeleton of brain stem cell cultures, but not that of cortical cell cultures, were visible after 7 days.

Author(s): 
Schmuck, Gabriele
Roehrdanz, Elke
Haynes, Richard K.
Kahl, Regine
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology

Artemisinin has been used effectively in malaria treatment. With the emerging resistance to malaria, the optimum and judicial use of the drug has become important. The drug metabolism and toxicology can have an impact on the therapeutic profile and clinical use of this antimalarial agent. In this review, we discuss the pharmacokinetics and toxicological aspects of artemisinin and its therapeutic implications. Artemisinins have several dosing routes including oral, intramuscular, intravenous and rectal.

Author(s): 
Medhi, Bikash
Patyar, Sazal
Rao, Ramya S.
Byrav D S, Prasad
Prakash, Ajay
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Although artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are widely viewed as safe drugs with a wide therapeutic dose range, concerns about neuroauditory safety of artemisinins arose during their development. A decade ago, reviews of human data suggested a potential neuro-ototoxic effect, but the validity of these findings was questioned.

Author(s): 
Ramos-Martín, Virginia
González-Martínez, Carmen
Mackenzie, Ian
Schmutzhard, Joachim
Pace, Cheryl
Lalloo, David G.
Terlouw, Dianne J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Bacopa monniera is a perennial herb, and is used as a nerve tonic in äyurveda, a traditional medicinal system in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate oxidative damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether Bacopa monniera could potentially inhibit aluminium toxicity in the cerebral cortex. Male Wister rats (8 months old) were administered with AlCl(3) orally at a dose of 50mg/kg/day in drinking water for 1 month.

Author(s): 
Jyoti, Amar
Sethi, Pallavi
Sharma, Deepak
Publication Title: 
Neurotoxicology

Bacopa monnieri, Linn. (Brahmi, BM), traditionally used to improve mental health in Indian ayurvedic system of medicine is known to possess various neuropharmacolgical properties. In the recent past, Drosophila has been widely used as a model to study various neurodegenerative diseases. Environmental toxins like rotenone, a specific inhibitor of complex I is employed to increase oxidative stress mediated neuropathology and sporadic Parkinson's disease. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective properties of BM against rotenone induced oxidative damage and neurotoxicity.

Author(s): 
Hosamani, Ravikumar
Muralidhara, null
Publication Title: 
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Ayurveda is a Sanskrit word, which means "the scripture for longevity". It represents an ancient system of traditional medicine prevalent in India and in several other south Asian countries. It is based on a holistic view of treatment which is believed to cure human diseases through establishment of equilibrium in the different elements of human life, the body, the mind, the intellect and the soul [1].

Author(s): 
Ven Murthy, M. R.
Ranjekar, Prabhakar K.
Ramassamy, Charles
Deshpande, Manasi
Publication Title: 
Biological Trace Element Research

Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) is a creeping grass used as a traditional ayurvedic medicine in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of C. dactylon (AECD) could potentially prevent aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat brain. Male albino rats were administered with AlCl(3) at a dose of 4.2 mg/kg/day i.p.

Author(s): 
Sumathi, Thangarajan
Shobana, Chandrasekar
Kumari, Balasubramanian Rathina
Nandhini, Devarajulu Nisha
Publication Title: 
Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive methods are needed to detect distal sensory polyneuropathy in HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), small-fiber sensitive measures, were assessed in subjects with and without clinical neuropathy. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: Twenty-two subjects had symptoms and signs of neuropathy, 19 had neither, and all were receiving ART.

Author(s): 
Boger, M. S.
Hulgan, T.
Haas, D. W.
Mitchell, V.
Smith, A. G.
Singleton, J. R.
Peltier, A. C.

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