Immune activation is an effective as well as protective approach against emerging infectious diseases. The immunomodulatory activities of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) were assessed by testing the various neutrophil functions like adherence, phagocytosis (phagocytic index (P.I) and avidity index (A.I)) and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction in albino rats. In recent years much attention is being focused on the immunological changes occur during stress. Noise (100 dB) stress for 4 h/d for 15 d, was employed to alter the neutrophil functions.
Penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (PGG) occurrs in high concentrations in medicinal herbs such as Rhus chinensis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Acer truncatum and Terminalia chebula, which demonstrate anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the effect of PGG on stimulated and non-stimulated neutrophils in processes which included reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), metalloproteinase-9 and interleukin-8 secretion (IL-8), ?? integrin (CD11b) and L-selectin (CD62L) expression and apoptosis.
Terminally differentiated neutrophils are short-lived but the key effector cells of the innate immune response, and have a prominent role in the pathogenesis and propagation of many inflammatory diseases. Delayed apoptosis, which is responsible for their extended longevity, is critically dependent on a balance of intracellular survival versus pro-apoptotic proteins. Here, we elucidate the mechanism by which the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor drugs such as R-roscovitine and DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole) mediate neutrophil apoptosis.
Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (cC) is a cysteine protease inhibitor that may influence immune response. Our aim was to test the effect of a high concentration of cC, characteristic for uremic patients, on neutrophil (PMN) apoptosis and respiratory burst, as well as the cC secretion from PMNs stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines. MATERIAL/METHODS: PMNs from 35 healthy volunteers aged 27-61 years were cultured in presence of cC, IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. The percentage of apoptotic cells based on DNA depletion, Fas, FasL and caspase -3 expression were assessed.
Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
The protective effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cardiovascular disease has been previously demonstrated using transgenic animal models in which HO-1 is constitutively overexpressed in the heart. However, the temporal requirements for protection by HO-1 induction relative to injury have not been investigated, but are essential to employ HO-1 as a therapeutic strategy in human cardiovascular disease states.
Several studies have shown that both oxidative stress and inflammation are linked to the process of hypertension and that the immune system is also involved in this age-related process. More specifically, the oxygen stress related to immune system dysfunction seems to have a key role in senescence, in agreement with the oxidation/ inflammation theory of aging. From a practical point of view, and according to our own research, the immune functions change in a similar fashion in hypertension and aging.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
BACKGROUND: The experience of undergoing surgery is known to induce a short-term, fight-or-flight physiological stress response. As an optimum immune response at the site of surgery would enhance tissue repair, we examined surgical stress-induced immune cell redistribution profiles as predictors, and potential mediators, of short and long-term postoperative recovery. We tested the a priori hypothesis that predefined adaptive immune cell redistribution profiles observed during surgery will predict enhanced postoperative recovery.
The inflammatory response was studied in patients with primary polycythaemia by means of a modified skin window technique. In untreated patients, the overall cellularity was a prominent feature and, as compared with the controls, the 48 h preparations showed a significantly greater percentage of granulocytes with a corresponding decreased percentage of macrophages. In the peripheral blood of these patients, both total white cells and granulocyte counts were significantly higher than in the control subjects.
Incubation of mammalian tumor cells with either soluble of insoluble fractions (10 to 100 micrograms/ml) of Fusobacterium nucleatum sensitizes them to the destructive activity of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) effector cells in the presence of anti-F. nucleatum antisera. All three types of ADCC effector cells are capable of destroying F. nucleatum-sensitized target cells with varying degrees of effectiveness (lymphocytes much greater than monocytes greater than neutrophils). Hyperimmune rabbit anti-F. nucleatum antisera were active at a dilution as high as 1/100,000.