CONTEXT: Leptadenia reticulata Linn. (Asclpiadaceae) commonly known as "dodi," is an Indian medicinal plant which is known to have ethno-medical uses such as stimulant, tonic, immunostimulant and is one of the ingredient in ayurvedic formulation called as "Chawanprash," which is widely used in India to increase the strength of immune system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present study is to evaluate immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of L. reticulata L. leaves in rodents.
Tinospora cordifolia is used in Ayurveda as "Rasayanas" to improve the immune system and the body resistance against infections. Polysaccharides are the main constituents which are considered to be responsible for immune enhancement. In this study, immunomodulatory activity of three polysaccharide enriched fractions was evaluated using the polymorphonuclear leukocyte function test. Sugar composition was determined by GC-MS analysis of the derivatised fractions. The active polysaccharide fractions mainly constitute glucose, fructose and arabinose as monomer units.
Guduchi has been widely used in the traditional medicine as an immunomodulator. Description of guduchi in Ayurvedic literature resemble with T. sinensis rather than with commonly available T. cordifolia and hence this may be used as substitutes for T. sinensis. T. cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica commonly called Neem-guduchi has more immunomodulatory potential. Thus, immunomodulatory activity of three Tinospora spp.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The great similarity of the genomes of humans and other species stimulated us to search for genes regulated by elements associated with human uniqueness, such as the mind-body interaction. DNA microarray technology offers the advantage of analyzing thousands of genes simultaneously, with the potential to determine healthy phenotypic changes in gene expression. The aim of this study was to determine the genomic profile and function of neutrophils in Falun Gong (FLG, an ancient Chinese Qigong) practitioners, with healthy subjects as controls.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Studies were conducted with rats to investigate whether platelet activating factor (PAF) and nitric oxide (*NO)-derived oxidants played roles in the initial adherence of neutrophils to vasculature in the brain after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Before CO poisoning, rats were treated with the competitive PAF receptor antagonist WEB-2170 or with the peroxynitrite scavenger selenomethionine. Both agents caused significantly lower concentrations of myeloperoxidase in the brain after poisoning, indicating fewer sequestered neutrophils.
An important aspect of the risk of cancer is the involvement of the inflammatory response. Currently, antiinflammatory agents are used in chemopreventive strategies. For example, aspirin is recommended for the prevention of colon cancer as well as breast and other cancers. The inflammatory response involves the production of cytokines and proinflammatory oxidants such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and peroxynitrite (ONO2-) produced by neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. These oxidants react with phenolic tyrosine residues on proteins to form chloro- and nitrotyrosine.
Dietary gammalinolenic acid (GLA), a potent inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and suppressor of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), can attenuate the clinical course of rheumatoid arthritics, with negligible side effects. Since Zileuton, also an inhibitor of 5-LOX, attenuates asthma but with an undesirable side effect, we investigated whether dietary GLA would suppress biosynthesis of PMN-LTB4 isolated from asthma patients and attenuate asthma. Twenty-four mild-moderate asthma patients (16-75 years) were randomized to receive either 2.0 g daily GLA (borage oil) or corn oil (placebo) for 12 months.
In adherent and motile neutrophils NAD(P)H concentration, flavoprotein redox potential, and production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, are all periodic and exhibit defined phase relationships to an underlying metabolic oscillation of approximately 20 s. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy, we have shown in real-time, on the single cell level, that the system is sensitive to externally applied periodically pulsed weak magnetic fields matched in frequency to the metabolic oscillation.
BACKGROUND: Echinacea has been widely used as an herbal remedy for the common cold, but efficacy studies have produced conflicting results, and there are a variety of echinacea products on the market with different phytochemical compositions. We evaluated the effect of chemically defined extracts from Echinacea angustifolia roots on rhinovirus infection. METHODS: Three preparations of echinacea, with distinct phytochemical profiles, were produced by extraction from E. angustifolia roots with supercritical carbon dioxide, 60 percent ethanol, or 20 percent ethanol.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Dectin-1 is the primary pattern recognition receptor for fungal glucans. Dectin-1 mediates the internalization and biological response to glucans. We examined the effect of i.v. or i.p. glucan phosphate (GP) administration on Dectin-1 membrane expression in murine peripheral blood leukocytes, splenocytes, bone marrow, and peritoneal cells from 3 h to 10 days after injection. Circulating leukocytes were also examined for uptake and internalization of glucans from the blood.