NF-E2-Related Factor 2

Publication Title: 
Toxicology in vitro: an international journal published in association with BIBRA

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are formed during normal aging, and at an accelerated rate in metabolic syndrome patients. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can be caused by the AGEs in plasma, while glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (glycer-AGEs) are significantly higher in the serum of NASH patients. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of chebulic acid, isolated from Terminalia chebula Retz., in the inhibition of glycer-AGEs induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and collagen accumulation using the LX-2 cell line.

Author(s): 
Koo, Yun-chang
Pyo, Min Cheol
Nam, Mi-Hyun
Hong, Chung-Oui
Yang, Sung-Yong
Lee, Kwang-Won
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Replicative senescence in human fibroblasts is accompanied with alterations of various biological processes, including the impaired function of the proteasome. The proteasome is responsible for the removal of both normal and damaged proteins. Due to its latter function, proteasome is also considered a representative secondary antioxidant cellular mechanism. Nrf2 is a basic transcription factor responsible for the regulation of the cellular antioxidant response that has also been shown to regulate several proteasome subunits in mice.

Author(s): 
Kapeta, Suzanne
Chondrogianni, Niki
Gonos, Efstathios S.
Publication Title: 
Oncogene

The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor (NRF2) is a key regulator of several enzymatic pathways, including cytoprotective enzymes in highly metabolic organs. In this review, we summarize the ongoing research related to NRF2 activity in cancer development, focusing on in vivo studies using NRF2 knockout (KO) mice, which have helped in defining the crucial role of NRF2 in chemoprevention. The lower cancer protection observed in NRF2 KO mice under calorie restriction (CR) suggests that most of the beneficial effects of CR on the carcinogenesis process are likely mediated by NRF2.

Author(s): 
MartÌn-Montalvo, A.
Villalba, J. M.
Navas, P.
de Cabo, R.
Publication Title: 
Gerontology

BACKGROUND: Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health. We focus on the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat. This mouse-sized mammal lives ~8 times longer than do mice and, despite high levels of oxidative damage evident at a young age, it is not only very resistant to spontaneous neoplasia but also shows minimal decline in age-associated physiological traits.

Author(s): 
Lewis, Kaitlyn N.
Mele, James
Hornsby, Peter J.
Buffenstein, Rochelle
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

BACKGROUND: The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (official symbol: NFE2L2, alias: Nrf2) is a master regulator of antioxidant defense system, which makes it an attractive target for manipulations that aim to increase cellular resistance to oxidative stress.

Author(s): 
Baldelli, Sara
Aquilano, Katia
Ciriolo, Maria R.
Publication Title: 
Gerontology

BACKGROUND: Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health. We focus on the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat. This mouse-sized mammal lives ~8 times longer than do mice and, despite high levels of oxidative damage evident at a young age, it is not only very resistant to spontaneous neoplasia but also shows minimal decline in age-associated physiological traits.

Author(s): 
Lewis, Kaitlyn N.
Mele, James
Hornsby, Peter J.
Buffenstein, Rochelle
Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Baicalein is a major compound of extracts derived from Scutellaria baicalensis Lamiaceae, which are used as food supplements. Baicalein possesses a high radical scavenging activity and decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species in Hct116 human colon carcinoma cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans . It activates Nrf2, a key transcription factor that binds to the antioxidant responsive element (ARE): Baicalein causes a nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, increases ARE-dependent luciferase activity, and enhances the expression of heme oxygenase-1 in Hct116 cells.

Author(s): 
Havermann, Susannah
Rohrig, Ricarda
Chovolou, Yvonni
Humpf, Hans-Ulrich
W‰tjen, Wim
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Coordinated expression of mitochondrial and nuclear genes is required to maintain proper mitochondrial function. However, the precise mechanisms that ensure this coordination are not well defined. We find that signaling from mitochondria to the nucleus is influenced by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity via changes in autophagy and p62/SQSTM1 turnover. Reducing mTOR activity increases autophagic flux, enhances mitochondrial membrane potential, reduces reactive oxygen species within the cell, and increases replicative life span.

Author(s): 
Lerner, Chad
Bitto, Alessandro
Pulliam, Daniel
Nacarelli, Timothy
Konigsberg, Mina
Van Remmen, Holly
Torres, Claudio
Sell, Christian
Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

Oxidative stress is a prominent feature of Huntington's disease (HD) due to mitochondrial dysfunction and the ensuing overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This phenomenon ultimately contributes to cognitive and motor impairment, as well as brain pathology, especially in the striatum. Targeting the transcription of the endogenous antioxidant machinery could be a promising therapeutic approach. The NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway is an important pathway involved in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses.

Author(s): 
Stack, Cliona
Ho, Daniel
Wille, Elizabeth
Calingasan, Noel Y.
Williams, Charlotte
Liby, Karen
Sporn, Michael
Dumont, Magali
Beal, M. Flint
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The present day lifestyle heavily depends on industrial chemicals in the form of agriculture, cosmetics, textiles and medical products. Since the toxicity of the industrial chemicals has been a concern to human health, the need for alternative non-toxic natural products or adjuvants that serve as antidotes are in high demand. We have investigated the effects of Ayurvedic herb Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaf extract on methoxyacetic acid (MAA) induced toxicity.

Author(s): 
Priyandoko, Didik
Ishii, Tetsuro
Kaul, Sunil C.
Wadhwa, Renu

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