Niacinamide

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

In lower organisms, increased expression of the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sir2 augments lifespan. The mechanism through which this life extension is mediated remains incompletely understood. Here we have examined the cellular effects of overexpression of SIRT1, the closest mammalian ortholog of Sir2. In PC12 cells, increased expression of the NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 reduces cellular oxygen consumption by approximately 25%. We further demonstrate that SIRT1 expression can alter the transcriptional activity of the mitochondrial biogenesis coactivator PGC-1alpha.

Author(s): 
Nemoto, Shino
Fergusson, Maria M.
Finkel, Toren
Publication Title: 
Trends in Biochemical Sciences

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is both a coenzyme for hydride-transfer enzymes and a substrate for NAD(+)-consuming enzymes, which include ADP-ribose transferases, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, cADP-ribose synthases and sirtuins. Recent results establish protective roles for NAD(+) that might be applicable therapeutically to prevent neurodegenerative conditions and to fight Candida glabrata infection.

Author(s): 
Belenky, Peter
Bogan, Katrina L.
Brenner, Charles
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)
Author(s): 
Strauss, Evelyn
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)
Author(s): 
Couzin, Jennifer
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

The diet known as calorie restriction (CR) is the most reproducible way to extend the lifespan of mammals. Many of the early hypotheses to explain this effect were based on it being a passive alteration in metabolism. Yet, recent data from yeast, worms, flies, and mammals support the idea that CR is not simply a passive effect but an active, highly conserved stress response that evolved early in life's history to increase an organism's chance of surviving adversity.

Author(s): 
Sinclair, David A.
Publication Title: 
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy = BiomÈdecine & PharmacothÈrapie

Oxidative stress is a principal pathway for the dysfunction and ultimate destruction of cells in the neuronal and vascular systems for several disease entities, not promoting the ravages of oxidative stress to any less of a degree than diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is increasing in incidence as a result of changes in human behavior that relate to diet and daily exercise and is predicted to affect almost 400 million individuals worldwide in another two decades.

Author(s): 
Maiese, Kenneth
Publication Title: 
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica

The present study deals with the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital (Pento) in relation to its metabolism in hepatic microsomes in streptozotocin (STZ, 170 mg/kg, i.p.) injected mice. Liver weight (mg/10 g body wt.) of STZ-treated mice was larger than that of the controls throughout the experimental period. Although the shortening of sleeping time induced by Pento (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was always observed, Pento-metabolizing enzyme activity (by the method of Kato et al., 1964) increased in mice with diabetes for 2 and 4 weeks but decreased in mice with diabetes for 8 weeks.

Author(s): 
Fujii, E.
Tsukahara, F.
Nomoto, T.
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

In India, Azadirachta indica is typically known as 'neem tree' and its leaves has long been used in the ayurvedic medical tradition as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. In-depth chromatographic investigation on chloroform extract resulted in identification of one new tetranortriterpenoid. Structural elucidation was established on the basis of spectral data as 24,25,26,27-tetranor-apotirucalla-(apoeupha)-1α-senecioyloxy-3α,7α-dihydroxy-14,20,22-trien-21,23-epoxy named by us as meliacinolin (1).

Author(s): 
Perez-Gutierrez, Rosa Martha
Damian-Guzman, Monica
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

In India, Azadirachta indica is typically known as 'neem tree' and its leaves has long been used in the ayurvedic medical tradition as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. In-depth chromatographic investigation on chloroform extract resulted in identification of one new tetranortriterpenoid. Structural elucidation was established on the basis of spectral data as 24,25,26,27-tetranor-apotirucalla-(apoeupha)-1α-senecioyloxy-3α,7α-dihydroxy-14,20,22-trien-21,23-epoxy named by us as meliacinolin (1).

Author(s): 
Perez-Gutierrez, Rosa Martha
Damian-Guzman, Monica
Publication Title: 
Pharmaceutical Biology

CONTEXT: The roots of Aerva lanata Linn. (Amaranthaceae) (AL) are employed traditionally as an antihyperglycaemic in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. OBJECTIVE: The present investigation is focus for identification and isolation of the bioactive compound from methanol roots extract of AL against streptozocin-nicotinamide induced elevated serum glucose level in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol extract of the roots was fractionated using different solvents. The partially purified alkaloid basified toluene fraction (PPABTF) showed the presence of alkaloids.

Author(s): 
Agrawal, Ritesh
Sethiya, Neeraj K.
Mishra, S. H.

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