Nicotine

Publication Title: 
Health Policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

OBJECTIVES: To provide a short review of the evidence base supporting smoking cessation interventions, including behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment options. METHODS: Published meta-analysis was mainly used supplemented with a limited literature search. RESULTS: Effective smoking cessation consists of pharmacotherapy and behavioral support. Counseling increases abstinence rates parallel to the intensity of support.

Author(s): 
Tønnesen, Philip
Publication Title: 
Preventive Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To assess the preferred methods to quit smoking among current smokers. METHOD: Cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Lausanne between 2003 and 2006 including 988 current smokers. Preference was assessed by questionnaire. Evidence-based (EB) methods were nicotine replacement, bupropion, physician or group consultations; non-EB-based methods were acupuncture, hypnosis and autogenic training.

Author(s): 
Marques-Vidal, Pedro
Melich-Cerveira, João
Paccaud, Fred
Waeber, Gérard
Vollenweider, Peter
Cornuz, Jacques
Publication Title: 
BMC medical research methodology

BACKGROUND: Recently developed measures such as I2 and H allow the evaluation of the impact of heterogeneity in conventional meta-analyses. There has been no examination of the development of heterogeneity in the context of a cumulative meta-analysis. METHODS: Cumulative meta-analyses of five smoking cessation interventions (clonidine, nicotine replacement therapy using gum and patch, physician advice and acupuncture) were used to calculate I2 and H.

Author(s): 
Villanueva, Elmer V.
Zavarsek, Silva
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a serious risk to health: several therapies are available to assist those who wish to stop. Smokers who approach publicly funded stop-smoking clinics in the UK are currently offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion, and group behaviour therapy, for which there is evidence of effectiveness. Acupuncture and acupressure are also used to help smokers, though a systematic review of the evidence of their effectiveness was inconclusive.

Author(s): 
White, Adrian R.
Moody, Russell C.
Campbell, John L.
Publication Title: 
Health Policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

OBJECTIVES: To provide a short review of the evidence base supporting smoking cessation interventions, including behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment options. METHODS: Published meta-analysis was mainly used supplemented with a limited literature search. RESULTS: Effective smoking cessation consists of pharmacotherapy and behavioral support. Counseling increases abstinence rates parallel to the intensity of support.

Author(s): 
Tønnesen, Philip
Publication Title: 
BMC medical research methodology

BACKGROUND: Recently developed measures such as I2 and H allow the evaluation of the impact of heterogeneity in conventional meta-analyses. There has been no examination of the development of heterogeneity in the context of a cumulative meta-analysis. METHODS: Cumulative meta-analyses of five smoking cessation interventions (clonidine, nicotine replacement therapy using gum and patch, physician advice and acupuncture) were used to calculate I2 and H.

Author(s): 
Villanueva, Elmer V.
Zavarsek, Silva
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a serious risk to health: several therapies are available to assist those who wish to stop. Smokers who approach publicly funded stop-smoking clinics in the UK are currently offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion, and group behaviour therapy, for which there is evidence of effectiveness. Acupuncture and acupressure are also used to help smokers, though a systematic review of the evidence of their effectiveness was inconclusive.

Author(s): 
White, Adrian R.
Moody, Russell C.
Campbell, John L.
Publication Title: 
Preventive Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To assess the preferred methods to quit smoking among current smokers. METHOD: Cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Lausanne between 2003 and 2006 including 988 current smokers. Preference was assessed by questionnaire. Evidence-based (EB) methods were nicotine replacement, bupropion, physician or group consultations; non-EB-based methods were acupuncture, hypnosis and autogenic training.

Author(s): 
Marques-Vidal, Pedro
Melich-Cerveira, João
Paccaud, Fred
Waeber, Gérard
Vollenweider, Peter
Cornuz, Jacques
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics: The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics

In recent years, the role of epigenetic phenomenon, such as methylation, in mediating vulnerability to behavioral illness has become increasingly appreciated. One prominent locus at which epigenetic phenomena are thought to be in play is the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) locus. In order to examine the role of methylation at this locus, we performed quantitative methylation analysis across the promoter region of this gene in lymphoblast lines derived from 191 subjects participating in the Iowa Adoption Studies (IAS).

Author(s): 
Philibert, Robert A.
Gunter, Tracy D.
Beach, Steven R. H.
Brody, Gene H.
Madan, Anup
Publication Title: 
Pharmacogenomics

The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) plays a central role in addictive disorders, including nicotine addiction. Specific DA-related gene variants have been studied to identify responsiveness to treatment for nicotine addiction. Genetic variants in DRD2, DRD4, ANKK1, DAT1, COMT and DBH genes show some promise in informing personalized prescribing of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. However, many trials studying these variants had small samples, used retrospective design or were composed of mainly self-identified Caucasian individuals.

Author(s): 
Herman, Aryeh I.
DeVito, Elise E.
Jensen, Kevin P.
Sofuoglu, Mehmet

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