Reduction of nutrient intake without malnutrition positively influences lifespan and healthspan from yeast to mice and exerts some beneficial effects also in humans. The AMPK-FoxO axis is one of the evolutionarily conserved nutrient-sensing pathways, and the FOXO3A locus is associated with human longevity. Interestingly, FoxO3A has been reported to be also a mitochondrial protein in mammalian cells and tissues. Here we report that glucose restriction triggers FoxO3A accumulation into mitochondria of fibroblasts and skeletal myotubes in an AMPK-dependent manner.
Two recently reported hit compounds, COR627 and COR628, underpinned the development of a series of 2-(acylamino)thiophene derivatives. Some of these compounds displayed significant activity in vitro as positive allosteric modulators of the GABAB receptor by potentiating GTP?S stimulation induced by GABA at 2.5 and 25 ?M while failing to exhibit intrinsic agonist activity. Compounds were also found to be effective in vivo, potentiating baclofen-induced sedation/hypnosis in DBA mice when administered either intraperitoneally or intragastrically.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: India is a rich source of medicinal plants and a number of plant extracts are used against diseases in various systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Only a few of them have been scientifically explored. One of such plants is Ammannia baccifera L., traditionally used as an antitumor agent. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the present study was to explore the anticancer activity of the methanol extract of A.
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology is characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated tau and amyloid-beta peptides derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Elevated blood levels of homocysteine are a significant risk factor for many age-related diseases, including AD. Impaired homocysteine metabolism favors the formation of S-adenosylhomocysteine, leading to inhibition of methyltransferase-dependent reactions.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Therapies to correct the ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) folding defect require sensitive methods to detect channel activity in vivo. The β₂ adrenergic receptor agonists, which provide the CFTR stimuli commonly used in nasal potential difference assays, may not overcome the channel gating defects seen in ΔF508 CFTR after plasma membrane localization. In this study, we identify an agent, quercetin, that enhances the detection of surface ΔF508 CFTR, and is suitable for nasal perfusion.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
OBJECTIVE: Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential micronutrient. Findings since the 1950s suggest that Cr3+ might benefit cholesterol homeostasis. Here we present mechanistic evidence in support of this role of Cr3+. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which are rendered ineffective by the hyperinsulinemia that is known to accompany disorders of lipid metabolism, was corrected by Cr3+.
Fibroblast growth factors are key proteins in many intercellular signaling networks. They normally remain attached to the extracellular matrix, which confers on them a considerable stability. The unrestrained accumulation of fibroblast growth factors in the extracellular milieu, either due to uncontrolled synthesis or enzymatic release, contributes to the pathology of many diseases. Consequently, the neutralization of improperly mobilized fibroblast growth factors is of clear therapeutic interest.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Adjustable control of therapeutic transgenes in engineered cell implants after transdermal and topical delivery of nontoxic trigger molecules would increase convenience, patient compliance, and elimination of hepatic first-pass effect in future therapies. Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E has evolved the flavonoid-triggered TtgR operon, which controls expression of a multisubstrate-specific efflux pump (TtgABC) to resist plant-derived defense metabolites in its rhizosphere habitat. Taking advantage of the TtgR operon, we have engineered a hybrid P.
Metabolic adaptation is essential for cell survival during nutrient deprivation. We report that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), which is activated by AMP-kinase (AMPK), confers cell survival under acute nutrient depletion by blocking translation elongation. Tumor cells exploit this pathway to adapt to nutrient deprivation by reactivating the AMPK-eEF2K axis. Adaptation of transformed cells to nutrient withdrawal is severely compromised in cells lacking eEF2K.
Cordycepin (3' deoxyadenosine) has long been used in the study of in vitro assembled polyadenylation complexes, because it terminates the poly(A) tail and arrests the cleavage complex. It is derived from caterpillar fungi, which are highly prized in Chinese traditional medicine. Here we show that cordycepin specifically inhibits the induction of inflammatory mRNAs by cytokines in human airway smooth muscle cells without affecting the expression of control mRNAs.