Nitric Oxide Synthase

Publication Title: 
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Padma 28 is a mixture of herbs used in traditional Tibetan medicine with anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effects of Padma 28 on nitric oxide (NO) production by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide stimulated mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7). Padma 28 (0-900 microg/mL) induced a concentration dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. iNOS protein expression showed a concentration dependent reduction as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Padma 28.

Author(s): 
Moeslinger, T.
Friedl, R.
Volf, I.
Brunner, M.
Koller, E.
Spieckermann, P. G.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Arginine is derived from dietary protein intake, body protein breakdown, or endogenous de novo arginine production. The latter may be linked to the availability of citrulline, which is the immediate precursor of arginine and limiting factor for de novo arginine production. Arginine metabolism is highly compartmentalized due to the expression of the enzymes involved in arginine metabolism in various organs. A small fraction of arginine enters the NO synthase (NOS) pathway. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential and rate-limiting cofactor for the production of NO.

Author(s): 
Luiking, Yvette C.
Ten Have, Gabriella A. M.
Wolfe, Robert R.
Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Plasmodium berghei ANKA infected C57B1/6 mice develop cerebral malaria at a parasitaemia of 15-25%. When parasitaemia reached 10%, P. berghei infected mice were treated with artemether, chloroquine or clindamycin in order to prevent the occurrence of cerebral malaria. Artemether and chloroquine were highly efficient. Functional tests revealed that zymosan stimulated spleen cells from untreated mice with cerebral malaria showed a slight decrease in their capacity to produce reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) when compared with naive mice.

Author(s): 
Prada, J.
Müller, S.
Bienzle, U.
Kremsner, P. G.
Publication Title: 
FEBS letters

Artemisinin is a natural product used as an alternative drug in the treatment of severe and multidrug-resistant malaria. In the present work we show that artemisinin shares with other sesquiterpene lactones the ability to inhibit the activation of the nuclear factor NF-kB: by this mechanism, artemisinin, as well as parthenolide, inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in cytokine-stimulated human astrocytoma T67 cells. These results suggest that artemisinin, in addition to its antiparasitic properties, could also exert a therapeutic effect on neurological complications of malaria.

Author(s): 
Aldieri, Elisabetta
Atragene, Daniela
Bergandi, Loredana
Riganti, Chiara
Costamagna, Costanzo
Bosia, Amalia
Ghigo, Dario
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Glucosamine represents one of the most commonly used drugs to treat osteoarthritis. However, mechanisms of its antiarthritic activities are still poorly understood. The present study identifies a novel mechanism of glucosamine-mediated anti-inflammatory activity. It is shown that both glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine inhibit IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-induced NO production in normal human articular chondrocytes.

Author(s): 
Shikhman, A. R.
Kuhn, K.
Alaaeddine, N.
Lotz, M.
Publication Title: 
Circulation

BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypic marker of inflammation, has been shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deficiency is a pivotal event in atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested the effect of CRP on eNOS expression and bioactivity in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). CRP decreased eNOS mRNA, protein abundance, and enzyme activity in HAECs. Furthermore, eNOS bioactivity assayed by cyclic GMP levels was significantly reduced by CRP.

Author(s): 
Venugopal, Senthil Kumar
Devaraj, Sridevi
Yuhanna, Ivan
Shaul, Philip
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Publication Title: 
Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society

The present study was designed to determine the efficiency of translocation of short polymers of arginine into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and to determine their effect on nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Immunostaining revealed that heptamers of L-arginine (R7) rapidly translocated into the VSMC. This rapid transport was not observed with shorter polymers of L-arginine (R5) nor heptamers of lysine (K7). Translocation of R7 was not inhibited by the addition of free L-arginine into the media.

Author(s): 
Uemura, Shiro
Rothbard, Jonathan B.
Matsushita, Hidetsugu
Tsao, Philip S.
Fathman, C. Garrison
Cooke, John P.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

We hypothesized that elevated partial pressures of O(2) would increase perivascular nitric oxide (*NO) synthesis. Rodents with O(2)- and.NO-specific microelectrodes implanted adjacent to the abdominal aorta were exposed to O(2) at partial pressures from 0.2 to 2.8 atmospheres absolute (ATA). Exposures to 2.0 and 2.8 ATA O(2) stimulated neuronal (type I) NO synthase (nNOS) and significantly increased steady-state.NO concentration, but the mechanism for enzyme activation differed at each partial pressure.

Author(s): 
Thom, Stephen R.
Fisher, Donald
Zhang, Jie
Bhopale, Veena M.
Ohnishi, S. Tsuyoshi
Kotake, Yashige
Ohnishi, Tomoko
Buerk, Donald G.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

The purpose of this study was to examine cardiovascular responses to fourth cerebral ventricle (4V) administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) or an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) in the near-term ovine and to determine whether, during birth, neuronal NOS (nNOS) is induced in noradrenergic A1 neurons in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS). In chronically instrumented fetal sheep, 4V injection of NTG (1.2 nmol), an NO donor, produced an arterial blood depressor and a moderate decrease in heart rate.

Author(s): 
Ma, Sheng-Xing
Fang, Qun
Morgan, Brian
Ross, Michael G.
Chao, Conrad R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

The purpose of these studies was to determine the role of gracile nucleus and the effects of l-arginine-derived nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the nucleus on the cardiovascular responses to electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Zusanli" (ST36). Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored during EA stimulation of ST36 following microinjections of agents into gracile nucleus. EA ST36 produced depressor and bradycardiac responses in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats.

Author(s): 
Chen, Shuang
Ma, Sheng-Xing

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