Empathic concern for others is an essential motive for challenges of self-regulation at all developmental stages. A child who never develops the capacity for empathic concern may become an ineffective parent, such that developmental psychopathology propagates across generations. We draw on evidence and theory by Panksepp and associates that indicates that infant-mother bonding is mediated by opiate mechanisms. We review the neural systems of pain perception and find these are closely aligned with those for attentional and cognitive self-regulation.
Previous research implicates an endogenous central pain inhibitory mechanism in opiate analgesia, analgesia produced by focal electrical stimulation of the brain, and acupuncture analgesia. This investigation evaluates the possibility that analgesia produced by hypnosis is also mediated by such a mechanism. Results suggest that hypnotic analgesia is unlikely to involve this central pain inhibitory mechanism since hypnotic analgesia is not altered by naloxone hydrochloride, a specific narcotic antagonist.
Previous research has shown that animal hypnosis (tonic immobility) in the rabbit may be elicited in a condition of prolonged nociceptive stimulation. These experiments show that long-lasting irritative pain, produced within 15 min of formalin injection, potentiates the duration of hypnosis. Morphine, in the absence of painful stimuli, also potentiates hypnosis duration and this effect is antagonized by naloxone. Naloxone reduces hypnosis duration, but only at high doses (15 mg/kg). In a condition of irritative pain, the potentiation of hypnosis duration is abolished by naloxone (5 mg/kg).
Cesium chloride (CsCl) at several dose levels (1.25-20.0 mEq/kg IP) was administered acutely to albino mice whose behavior was compared with that in corresponding saline controls. Motor activity decreased and Straub tail occurred in a dose-related manner. Signs of autonomic disturbance, diarrhea, and salivation were seen with toxic doses. Subchronic administration of CsCl (5.0 mEq/kg/day IP for 7 days) exerted a phenothiazine-like effect in mice, reducing amphetamine-induced aggregation toxicity and enhancing pentobarbital-induced hypnosis.
This study is an attempt to detect the most important modifications of physiological parameters occurring during pressure immobility in rabbits and to compare them with those recorded during animal hypnosis. Like the latter, pressure immobility is characterized by the development of high voltage slow waves in the EEG, reduction in frequency and amount of rhythmic slow activity in the hippocampus (RSA) and depression of spinal polysynaptic reflexes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures are not modified. Duration of two types of immobility is positively correlated within individuals.
Archives Internationales De Pharmacodynamie Et De Thérapie
The central nervous activity of the aqueous extract of kava was examined in mice, and compared to the effect of the lipid-soluble extract. The aqueous extract caused a loss of spontaneous activity without loss of muscle tone. No hypnotic effect was seen, but some analgesia was produced. The anticonvulsant effect against strychnine was very slight and there was no evidence of local anesthetic action. There was a slight anti-apomorphine effect and tetrabenazine-induced ptosis was decreased.
We studied the effects of atipamezole, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, on hypnosis induced by medetomidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist (1 mg/kg IP), and pentobarbital (40 mg/kg IP) by testing the righting reflex in the rat. The duration of antinociception was assessed with repeated pinch tests. Medetomidine-induced hypnosis and antinociception were inhibited by atipamezole at doses greater than 0.1 mg/kg. Atipamezole restored the righting reflex at a dose ratio that was 1:10 or more to that of medetomidine used to induce hypnosis.
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Pain reports and amplitudes of painful argon laser-induced brain potentials were obtained for 10 high and 10 low hypnotizable volunteers following placebo and a randomized sequence of four hypnotically induced conditions of (a) neutral hypnosis, (b) deep relaxation, (c) pleasant dissociated "out of body" imagery, and (d) focused analgesia of the hand. Both high and low hypnotizable subjects exhibited significant reductions of reported pain during conditions of neutral hypnosis, relaxation, dissociated imagery, and focused analgesia.
Transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (l.f.-h.i. TENS), employed in dentistry, allows masticatory muscles relaxation, temporary clearance of muscular and periodontal proprioceptive input and even oro-facial pain relief. The mechanisms involved in this type of stimulation are not entirely clarified. According to the most recent neurophysiological researches, the authors describe several l.f.-h.i. TENS. action modalities.
We studied nociception-associated arousal following laryngoscopy and intubation in patients scheduled for elective open heart surgery, using EEG power spectra and hemodynamics. Either fentanyl (7 micrograms/kg; n = 30) or sufentanil (1 microgram/kg; n = 30) were given in a randomized fashion to induce anesthesia in heavily premedicated patients, followed by pancuronium bromide (100 micrograms/kg).