OBJECTIVES: To assess lifestyle factors including physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habits in men and women with exceptional longevity. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A cohort of community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish individuals with exceptional longevity defined as survival and living independently at age 95 and older.
Diet is a component in the etiology of the two major causes of death in the United States, namely, cardiovascular disease and cancer. During the last decade, various organizations have suggested that we alter the "typical" American diet in order to decrease the incidence of these diseases even though both diseases are indisputably of multiple etiology. An implication behind these recommendations is that individuals will increase their longevity by changing their diets.
The present paper examines the relationship of nutritional status to further life expectancy and health status in the Japanese elderly based on 3 epidemiological studies. 1. Nutrient intakes in 94 Japanese centenarians investigated between 1972 and 1973 showed a higher proportion of animal protein to total proteins than in contemporary average Japanese. 2. High intakes of milk and fats and oils had favorable effects on 10-year (1976-1986) survivorship in 422 urban residents aged 69-71.
The health (self-reported health conditions) and nutritional status (food and nutrient intake, nutritional biochemistry, anthropometry) of 189 elderly Greeks living in Melbourne, Australia were described and compared with 104 elderly Greeks living in a rural town in Greece (Spata) using a validated health and food frequency questionnaire. Spata was chosen because the traditional diet is maintained by the community and may act as a 'surrogate' measure of diets prevalent in Greece prior to the Melbourne sample's migration to Australia in the 1960s.
The elderly population is increasing rapidly over the last decades. This population has a high risk for malnutrition due to metabolic and organic changes that occur during the aging process. Malnutrition is especially prevalent in hospitalized elderly patients and those with other disease. Malnutrition in the elderly increases the morbido-mortality as the nutrients influence the immune function, the cognitive function, vision.... Caloric intakes of 30 Kcal/kg/day and protein ingestion of 1-1.25 g/kg/day are recommended.
Journal of Epidemiology / Japan Epidemiological Association
Food and nutrient intake of NILS-LSA participants 40 to 79 years of age were assessed through 3-day weighed dietary records by gender and age. The results were as follows. The intake of fats and oils, meats and beverages tended to decrease, but fruits increased with age in both males and females. Regarding nutrient intake, energy, protein, fat, and cholesterol showed a decrease as individuals aged. The nutrient intake in the 70 to 79 yr group was significantly lower than other age groups of both genders. The total dietary fiber and vitamin C intake increased.
Anthropological evidence suggests that regional differences in eating practices may be characterized by sub-ethnicity. Hakka is one sub-ethnicity who still retain a unique way of life in China. A field survey on diet and health among the Hakka people was undertaken in 1994. Approximately 200 participants were interviewed for their medical history, life-style and food habits. Blood pressure, body mass index, blood sample, 24 h urine and electrocardiogram were collected. The food samples taken from one tenth of the participants were analyzed for the ingredients in their daily meals.