Caring: National Association for Home Care Magazine
As the management of HIV disease enters the realm of life-long treatment, rather than treatment for a terminal disease, nutrition becomes an important part of the treatment plan. Studies have shown a clear relationship between good nutritional status and the longevity of the AIDS patient.
For a variety of health, economic and social reasons, many countries are increasingly concerned about diet-related health problems impairing the quality and length of life. This article presents an analysis of the implementation of food and nutrition policies in Finland and Norway which are intended to address both the supply and demand aspects of food and dietary issues. The purpose was to identify policy problems and illustrate ways they have been addressed in order to be useful to other countries involved in developing such policies.
Dietary manipulation may influence outcome after infection and injury by altering production of inflammatory mediators and disease activity. Restricted nutrient intake may have beneficial effects on life-span, development of degenerative disease, autoimmune processes, renal injury, susceptibility to infection, and survival rate after infection. Nutritional therapies that serve to maximize nitrogen balance may adversely affect the host response to injury, especially when given in excess of energy and protein needs.
Interactions between nutrition and the ageing process are a fascinating field of research. The assessment of the nutritional status is an important part of medical examination. Generally it is assumed that energy intake and energy expenditure decrease with age. In fact they vary widely and are very different in healthy, in sick or in institutionalized elderly. Nutritional requirements depend on many social and physiological factors in the free-living elderly population. Surveys indicate that dietary requirements are qualitatively grossly comparable to those in middle-aged adults.
At the 1995 status review of the Healthy People 2000 nutrition objectives, progress was reported in several areas. These include dietary fat consumption, calcium intake, use of nutrition label information, incidence of coronary and stroke mortalities and blood pressure and cholesterol levels. However, a lack of progress was reported in the incidence of overweight in both men and women. Physicians can help their older patients achieve better health by providing assessments for under- or over-nutrition and education in age-appropriate dietary practices.
In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies.
The recent Expert Consultation of World Health Organization (WHO)/Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)/International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defined essentiality of a trace element as follows: "An element is considered essential to an organism when reduction of its exposure below a certain limit results consistently in a reduction in a physiologically important function, or when the element is an integral part of an organic structure performing a vital function in the organism." This definition omits a previous postulate that the mechanism of action of an essential trace e
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mutations in the clk-1 gene of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans result in slowed development, sluggish adult behaviors, and an increased lifespan. CLK-1 is a mitochondrial polypeptide with sequence and functional conservation from human to yeast. Coq7p, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue, is essential for ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or Q) synthesis and therefore respiration. However, based on assays of respiratory function, it has been reported that the primary defect in the C. elegans clk-1 mutants is not in Q biosynthesis.