Nutritional Requirements

Publication Title: 
PloS One

Diet can affect a spectrum of biological processes ranging from behavior to cellular metabolism. Yet, the precise role of an individual dietary constituent can be a difficult variable to isolate experimentally. A chemically defined food (CDF) permits the systematic evaluation of individual macro- and micronutrients. In addition, CDF facilitates the direct comparison of data obtained independently from different laboratories. Here, we report the development and characterization of a CDF for Drosophila.

Lee, Wen-Chih
Micchelli, Craig A.
Publication Title: 

The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality.

de Godoy, Maria R. C.
Kerr, Katherine R.
Fahey, George C.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Inadequate dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals are widespread, most likely due to excessive consumption of energy-rich, micronutrient-poor, refined food. Inadequate intakes may result in chronic metabolic disruption, including mitochondrial decay. Deficiencies in many micronutrients cause DNA damage, such as chromosome breaks, in cultured human cells or in vivo. Some of these deficiencies also cause mitochondrial decay with oxidant leakage and cellular aging and are associated with late onset diseases such as cancer.

Ames, Bruce N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Dietetic Association

BACKGROUND: Low intake of nutrients is associated with poor health outcomes. We examined the contribution of dietary supplementation to meeting recommended dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamin C in participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a cohort of white, African-American, Hispanic, and Chinese-American participants ages 45 to 84 years. We also assessed the prevalence of intakes above Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs).

Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.
Fitzpatrick, Annette L.
Gao, Kun
Jackson, Sharon A.
Schreiner, Pamela J.
Publication Title: 

OBJECTIVE: To increase knowledge on iron status and growth during the first 6 months of life. We hypothesized that iron status would be better in infants who received complementary foods in addition to breast milk compared with those exclusively breastfed. METHODS: One hundred nineteen healthy term (≥37 weeks) singleton infants were randomly assigned to receive either complementary foods in addition to breast milk from age 4 months (CF) or to exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (EBF).

Jonsdottir, Olof H.
Thorsdottir, Inga
Hibberd, Patricia L.
Fewtrell, Mary S.
Wells, Jonathan C.
Palsson, Gestur I.
Lucas, Alan
Gunnlaugsson, Geir
Kleinman, Ronald E.
Publication Title: 
Australian Family Physician

A vegetarian is a person who consumes a diet consisting mostly of plant based foods including fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds and grains. Some vegetarians also consume eggs and dairy foods. Individuals choose to follow a vegetarian diet for a range of reasons, including animal rights and religion, but two common reasons are the health and environmental benefits of plant based eating.

Marsh, Kate
Zeuschner, Carol
Saunders, Angela
Reid, Michelle
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vegans, and to a lesser extent vegetarians, have low average circulating concentrations of vitamin B12; however, the relation between factors such as age or time on these diets and vitamin B12 concentrations is not clear. The objectives of this study were to investigate differences in serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations between omnivores, vegetarians and vegans and to ascertain whether vitamin B12 concentrations differed by age and time on the diet.

Gilsing, A. M. J.
Crowe, F. L.
Lloyd-Wright, Z.
Sanders, T. a. B.
Appleby, P. N.
Allen, N. E.
Key, T. J.
Publication Title: 
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition

AIM: Energy restricted meal plans may compromise nutrient intake. This study used diet modelling to assess the nutritional adequacy of energy restricted meal plans designed for weight management in young obese women. METHODS: Diet modelling of 6000 kJ/d animal protein based meal plans was performed using Australian nutrient databases with adequacy compared to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for women (19-30 years). One diet plan was based on the higher carbohydrate (HC) version of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating for women 19-60 years.

O'Connor, Helen
Munas, Zahra
Griffin, Hayley
Rooney, Kieron
Cheng, Hoi Lun
Steinbeck, Katharine
Publication Title: 
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny

BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 belongs to the biologically active compounds related to cyanocobalamin group. The bioavailability of B12 from different food products varies considerably, for example from the chicken meat it ranges from 61 to 66%, from fish meat is 42%, and from eggs below 9% only. The deficiency of vitamin B12 could easily be overcame by the appropriate diet or food supplements.

Sicińska, Ewa
Cholewa, Małgorzata
Publication Title: 
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny

BACKGROUND: Vegetarian diets, by definition, are rich in vegetables and so may have high levels of nitrates, that can elicit both positive or negative effects on the human body. Exposure to nitrates can thus be potentially higher for this population group. OBJECTIVE: To estimate dietary nitrates intakes in Polish vegetarians and compare these with the Polish average. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A sample of 86 vegetarians were surveyed via a questionnaire to determine nitrate intake for those adopting a vegetarian diet.

Mitek, Marta
Anyzewska, Anna
Wawrzyniak, Agata


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