INTRODUCTION: Vegetarian diets have been shown to improve glucose metabolism and reduce risk for diabetes in Westerners but whether Chinese vegetarian diets have the same benefits is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the association between diet and diabetes/impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among 4384 Taiwanese Buddhist volunteers and identified diabetes/IFG cases from a comprehensive review of medical history and fasting plasma glucose.
OBJECTIVE: Food intake, aging, and immune function share complex influences. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine relationships between nutrient intakes from food and dietary supplements and a biomarker of immune function. DESIGN: Data were collected from participants in a cross-sectional study as well as baseline data from a longitudinal study (n=89). Subjects completed 24-hour food recalls, including supplement intake. Polyclonal mitogen phytohemmagluttin (PHA) was the immune function stimulator used. Height and weight were used to calculate body mass index.
Nutrient requirements increase during periods of growth and development such as pregnancy and lactation. In response, many clinicians recommend dietary supplements during these important periods of the life cycle. Although there exist some recommendations concerning the need for a limited number of nutrients in supplemental form (eg, iron, folic acid, and iodine), there is a relative paucity of data concerning the use of dietary supplements during pregnancy and lactation. Limited data suggest, however, that usage is dependent on demographic, sociologic, and economic factors.
There are periods during perinatal development in which specific nutrients are required for optimal development, and there is growing evidence that optimal dietary intake of these nutrients, which include iodine, docosahexaenoic acid, choline, and folate, is important. Lessons in how these nutrient effects were identified can help us to broaden our approaches for finding other critical nutrients: we are looking for nutrients for which there is a wide range of dietary intake, that have no or marginal pathways for biosynthesis, and that are needed by dividing progenitor cells.
Although it is widely known that use of dietary supplements is common in the United States, little is known about use patterns among older Americans. The authors examined trends in dietary supplement use and its contribution to total nutrient intake in the Iowa Women's Health Study cohort in 1986 (baseline) and 2004 (follow-up). The proportion of women who reported using dietary supplements increased substantially between baseline (66%) and follow-up (85%).
BACKGROUND: Low intake of nutrients is associated with poor health outcomes. We examined the contribution of dietary supplementation to meeting recommended dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamin C in participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a cohort of white, African-American, Hispanic, and Chinese-American participants ages 45 to 84 years. We also assessed the prevalence of intakes above Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs).
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional supplements used by athletes can be classified as sports food, dietary supplements and ergogenic aids. The aim of this study was to examine the use of such supplements among university athletes in Singapore. METHODS: 82 athletes from 16 sport disciplines completed a questionnaire which sought information on demographical parameters, type of supplements, frequency of use, motivations, knowledge, expenditure and side effects. RESULTS: The prevalence of supplement use was 76.8 percent and 20 different products were used.
Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) cannot metabolize phenylalanine (Phe) and must adhere to a low-Phe diet in which most dietary protein is provided by a Phe-free amino acid formula. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the only naturally occurring protein that does not contain Phe, and is of interest as a source of protein for dietary management of PKU. However, commercially available GMP contains too much Phe from residual whey proteins and does not contain adequate levels of all the indispensable amino acids to provide a nutritionally complete protein.
BACKGROUND: Low-birth-weight infants may have impaired zinc status, but little is known about the effect of zinc supplementation. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the effect of daily zinc supplementation on morbidity and anthropometric status in hospital-born, low-birth-weight infants. DESIGN: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 2052 hospital-born term infants with a birth weight < or =2500 g were randomly assigned to receive zinc or placebo.
OBJECTIVES: To review the use, benefits and adverse effects of the main dietary supplements consumed by adolescents. SOURCES: The literature review was performed using MEDLINE and LILACS databases (1997-2008). We analyzed 377 articles, and 52 of them were selected as references. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread among adolescents. This habit has often been detected in pediatric and adolescent medicine clinics. Most of the time, the use of supplements is motivated by the search of the ideal body.