Obesity, Morbid

Publication Title: 
Seminars in Nephrology

Surgical intervention has become an accepted therapeutic alternative for the patient with medically complicated obesity. Multiple investigators have reported significant and sustained weight loss after bariatric surgery that is associated with improvement of many weight-related medical comorbidities, and statistically significant decreased overall mortality for surgically treated as compared with medically treated subjects.

Author(s): 
Lieske, John C.
Kumar, Rajiv
Collazo-Clavell, Maria L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Lipid Research

Plasma lipoproteins and glucose homeostasis were evaluated after marked weight loss before and over 12 months following Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGBP) surgery in 19 morbidly obese women. Standard lipids, remnant-lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C); HDL-triglyceride (TG); apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-II, E, and A-I-containing HDL subpopulations; lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass and activity; plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after GBP surgery.

Author(s): 
Asztalos, Bela F.
Swarbrick, Michael M.
Schaefer, Ernst J.
Dallal, Gerard E.
Horvath, Katalin V.
Ai, Masumi
Stanhope, Kimber L.
Austrheim-Smith, Iselin
Wolfe, Bruce M.
Ali, Mohamed
Havel, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
AIDS research and human retroviruses

Obesity and chronic, treated HIV infection are both associated with persistent systemic inflammation and a similar constellation of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, but the combined effects of excess adiposity and HIV on circulating proinflammatory cytokines and other biomarkers previously shown to predict disease risk is not well described. We measured inflammation biomarker levels in 158 predominantly virologically suppressed adults on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) with a range of body mass index (BMI) values from normal to morbidly obese.

Author(s): 
Koethe, John R.
Dee, Kevin
Bian, Aihua
Shintani, Ayumi
Turner, Megan
Bebawy, Sally
Sterling, Timothy R.
Hulgan, Todd
Publication Title: 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between in vitro lipid content in myotubes and in vivo whole body phenotypes of the donors such as insulin sensitivity, intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), physical activity, and oxidative capacity. DESIGN AND METHODS: Six physically active donors were compared to six sedentary lean and six T2DM. Lipid content was measured in tissues and myotubes by immunohistochemistry. Ceramides, triacylglycerols, and diacylglycerols (DAGs) were measured by LC-MS-MS and GC-FID.

Author(s): 
Bajpeyi, Sudip
Myrland, Cassandra K.
Covington, Jeffrey D.
Obanda, Diana
Cefalu, William T.
Smith, Steven R.
Rustan, Arild C.
Ravussin, Eric
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is widely performed to induce weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine changes in vitamin status after 2 bariatric surgical techniques. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 Scandinavian hospitals. The subjects were 60 superobese patients [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 50-60]. The surgical interventions were either laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. All patients received multivitamins, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements.

Author(s): 
Aasheim, Erlend T.
Björkman, Sofia
Søvik, Torgeir T.
Engström, My
Hanvold, Susanna E.
Mala, Tom
Olbers, Torsten
Bøhmer, Thomas
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common in patients undergoing gastric bypass. The effect of this type of surgery on zinc absorption and zinc status is not well known. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) on zinc status and zinc absorption at different stages after surgery. We hypothesized that zinc status would be significantly impaired after surgery and that this impairment would be less severe in subjects receiving increased supplemental zinc. We also hypothesized that zinc absorption would be lower after surgery.

Author(s): 
Ruz, Manuel
Carrasco, Fernando
Rojas, Pamela
Codoceo, Juana
Inostroza, Jorge
Basfi-fer, Karen
Csendes, Attila
Papapietro, Karin
Pizarro, Fernando
Olivares, Manuel
Sian, Lei
Westcott, Jamie L.
Miller, Leland V.
Hambidge, K. Michael
Krebs, Nancy F.
Publication Title: 
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery

BACKGROUND: Extremely obese adolescents are increasingly undergoing bariatric procedures, which restrict dietary intake. However, as yet, no data are available describing the change in caloric density or composition of the adolescent bariatric patient's diet pre- and postoperatively. Our objective was to assess the 1-year change in the dietary composition of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery at a tertiary care children's hospital.

Author(s): 
Jeffreys, Renee M.
Hrovat, Kathleen
Woo, Jessica G.
Schmidt, Marcia
Inge, Thomas H.
Xanthakos, Stavra A.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Acute studies with alginate-based preloads suggested that these strong gelling fibers may induce increased feelings of satiety and reduce energy intakes. However, the long-term efficacy and safety of alginate supplementation on body weight regulation are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study was to investigate the effects in subjects of alginate supplementation in conjunction with energy restriction (-300 kcal/d) on loss of body weight and fat and, second, on metabolic risk markers in comparison with in a placebo group.

Author(s): 
Georg Jensen, Morten
Kristensen, Mette
Astrup, Arne
Publication Title: 
Australian Family Physician

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective method of weight loss for the treatment of morbid obesity. It is more effective when combined with nutritional care, which is sometimes complex, always ongoing and differs between surgical procedures. In Australia, the three most common bariatric surgical procedures are the adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

Author(s): 
Shannon, Caroline
Gervasoni, Ashlee
Williams, Trudy
Publication Title: 
Annals of Surgery

Since February 1, 1980, the identical standardized Greenville Gastric Bypass has been performed in 397 morbidly obese patients with an operative mortality rate of 0.8%. The operation effectively controlled weight and maintained satisfactory weight loss even after 6 years (mean weights and ranges: Preoperative: 290 lbs (196-535); 18 months: 175 lbs (110-300); 72 months: 205 lbs (140-320). The gastric bypass favorably affected non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), hypertension, physical and role functioning, and several measures of mental health.

Author(s): 
Pories, W. J.
Caro, J. F.
Flickinger, E. G.
Meelheim, H. D.
Swanson, M. S.

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