We investigated the influence of indicators of methodological quality on study outcome in a set of 89 placebo-controlled clinical trials of homoeopathy in three different ways: (1) The results of studies meeting single criteria (explicit statement of random allocation, allocation concealment, double-blinding, completeness of follow-up) of methodological quality were compared with those of studies not meeting the criteria in univariate and multivariate analyses; (2) The results of studies scoring above and below predefined scores in two quality assessment scales were compared; (3) Primary st
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Controlling environmental factors, chemoprophylaxis, immunoprophylaxis and surgery are considered possible means of preventing recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM), but there are no available data concerning the paediatric use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). We evaluated the uses of CAM (homeopathy and/or herbal medicine) as means of preventing AOM in children with a history of RAOM.
BACKGROUND: Homeopathy seems scientifically implausible, but has widespread use. We aimed to assess whether the clinical effect reported in randomised controlled trials of homeopathic remedies is equivalent to that reported for placebo. METHODS: We sought studies from computerised bibliographies and contracts with researchers, institutions, manufacturers, individual collectors, homeopathic conference proceedings, and books. We included all languages. Double-blind and/or randomised placebo-controlled trials of clinical conditions were considered.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of self-practiced qigong for treatment of essential hypertension. METHODS: Six major electronic databases were searched up to July 2006 to retrieve any potential randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of self-practiced qigong for essential hypertension reported in any language, with main outcome measures as systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP).
Results of 14 randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for chronic pain were pooled in a meta-analysis and analysed in three subgroups according to site of pain; and in two subgroups each according to type to trial, type of treatment, type of control, 'blindness' of participating agents, trial size, and type of journal in which results were published. While few individual trials had statistically significant results, pooled results of many subgroups attained statistical significance in favour of acupuncture.
BACKGROUND: Low back pain affects a large proportion of the population. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was introduced more than 30 years ago as an alternative therapy to pharmacologic treatments for chronic pain. However, despite its widespread use, the efficacy of TENS is still controversial. PURPOSE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of TENS in the treatment of chronic low back pain. METHODS: The authors searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to June 1, 2000.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acupuncture may be a promising treatment for poststroke paralysis. We conducted a meta-analysis, assessing the efficacy of acupuncture with and without stroke rehabilitation. METHODS: We identified randomized trials comparing acupuncture with no acupuncture within 6 months of stroke by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Chinese medical literature databases. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, patient characteristics, and impairment and disability outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: To obtain an overview of data from the Cochrane Library on smoking-cessation methods and aids available in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. METHOD: Common smoking-cessation methods in the Netherlands in 1999 and 2000 were selected from previous research. Data from relevant Cochrane reviews about these cessation methods were collected, after which the efficacy was calculated as a pooled odds ratio and the effectiveness as a percentage of 12 months' continuous abstinence.
BACKGROUND: Recently developed measures such as I2 and H allow the evaluation of the impact of heterogeneity in conventional meta-analyses. There has been no examination of the development of heterogeneity in the context of a cumulative meta-analysis. METHODS: Cumulative meta-analyses of five smoking cessation interventions (clonidine, nicotine replacement therapy using gum and patch, physician advice and acupuncture) were used to calculate I2 and H.
OBJECTIVE: Using metaanalysis to examine the effects of acustimulations on nausea and vomiting symptoms (NVS) in postoperative adult populations. METHODS: Metaanalyses of effects of various acupoints stimulations (AS) (including acupuncture, acupressure, and electrical stimulation) on NVS in postoperative adult populations were performed. Thirty-three quality randomized controlled trials (RCT) published over the past three decades were identified by evaluating the quality of randomization and treatment methods, and results were pooled using a fixed effects model.