Opioid Peptides

Publication Title: 
British Journal of Pharmacology

Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels.

Author(s): 
Vengeliene, V.
Bilbao, A.
Molander, A.
Spanagel, R.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Reductions in pain ratings when administered a placebo with expected analgesic properties have been described and hypothesized to be mediated by the pain-suppressive endogenous opioid system. Using molecular imaging techniques, we directly examined the activity of the endogenous opioid system on mu-opioid receptors in humans in sustained pain with and without the administration of a placebo.

Author(s): 
Zubieta, Jon-Kar
Bueller, Joshua A.
Jackson, Lisa R.
Scott, David J.
Xu, Yanjun
Koeppe, Robert A.
Nichols, Thomas E.
Stohler, Christian S.
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

This is a pilot examination of the hypothesis that some of the effects of smoking cigarettes in humans are mediated through nicotine activation of opioid and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. Neuroimaging was performed using positron emission tomography and the radiotracers [11C]carfentanil and [11C]raclopride, labeling mu-opioid and DA D2 receptors, respectively. Six healthy male smokers were abstinent overnight. After radiotracer administration, subjects smoked two denicotinized cigarettes, followed 45 min later by two average nicotine cigarettes.

Author(s): 
Scott, David J.
Domino, Edward F.
Heitzeg, Mary M.
Koeppe, Robert A.
Ni, Lisong
Guthrie, Sally
Zubieta, Jon-Kar
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Expectations, positive or negative, are modulating factors influencing behavior. They are also thought to underlie placebo effects, potentially impacting perceptions and biological processes. We used sustained pain as a model to determine the neural mechanisms underlying placebo-induced analgesia and affective changes in healthy humans. Subjects were informed that they could receive either an active agent or an inactive compound, similar to routine clinical trials.

Author(s): 
Zubieta, Jon-Kar
Stohler, Christian S.
Publication Title: 
Environmental Health Perspectives

Naturally occurring environmental substances often mimic endogenous substances found in mammals and are capable of interacting with specific proteins, such as receptors, with a high degree of fidelity and selectivity. Narcotic alkaloids and amphibian skin secretions, introduced into human society through close association with plants and animals through folk medicine and religious divination practices, were incorporated into the armamentarium of the early pharmacopoeia.

Author(s): 
Lazarus, L. H.
Bryant, S. D.
Attila, M.
Salvadori, S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

BACKGROUND: Metabolic and thermal stresses of exercise mediate the release of endogenous opioids depressing motoneuron activation (MNA). Although exercise is routinely presented as a coequal treatment for management of acute and chronic low back pain (LBP), it is not clear that exercise-induced endogenous opioid release can play a role in the analgesic and treatment outcomes for patients with LBP. Furthermore, if opioid involvement is present, it is not clear what level of exercise might be beneficial in the suppression of MNA and possibly LBP.

Author(s): 
Bulbulian, Ronald
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

BACKGROUND: Metabolic and thermal stresses of exercise mediate the release of endogenous opioids depressing motoneuron activation (MNA). Although exercise is routinely presented as a coequal treatment for management of acute and chronic low back pain (LBP), it is not clear that exercise-induced endogenous opioid release can play a role in the analgesic and treatment outcomes for patients with LBP. Furthermore, if opioid involvement is present, it is not clear what level of exercise might be beneficial in the suppression of MNA and possibly LBP.

Author(s): 
Bulbulian, Ronald
Publication Title: 
Japanese Journal of Pharmacology

To elucidate mechanisms involved in analgesia induced by effects of electro-acupuncture (EAP), effects of EAP on evoked potentials and release of substance P (SP) following tooth pulp stimulation (ST) in the superficial layers of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Vc-I-II) were studied in the rabbit. The potentials evoked by ST were composed of two main components with conduction velocity of ca. 30 m/sec (fast component) and ca. 12 m/sec (late component). The late component was significantly inhibited by morphine (10 mg/kg, i.v.) or CP-96,345 (5 mg/kg, i.v.), an SP antagonist.

Author(s): 
Takagi, J.
Sawada, T.
Yonehara, N.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Pharmacology

1. Our previous work has demonstrated that exogenously administered orphanin FQ (OFQ) antagonizes morphine analgesia and electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) in the brain and potentiates morphine analgesia and EAA in the spinal cord of the rat. In the present study we evaluated the role of endogenously released OFQ in the development of tolerance to morphine and electroacupuncture (EA) and the analgesia produced by electroacupuncture, by use of the IgG fraction of an anti-OFQ antibody (OFQ-Ab) microinjected into the rat central nervous system (CNS). 2.

Author(s): 
Tian, J. H.
Zhang, W.
Fang, Y.
Xu, W.
Grandy, D. K.
Han, J. S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985)

Electroacupuncture (EA) at Neiguan-Jianshi acupoints through an opioid mechanism inhibits the cardiovascular pressor response induced by mechanical stimulation of the stomach. Because nociceptin also may regulate cardiovascular activity through its action in the brain stem, we hypothesized that this neuromodulator serves a role in the EA-related inhibitory effect. Blood pressure in ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-600 g) anesthetized by ketamine and alpha-chloralose was measured during balloon inflation of the stomach.

Author(s): 
Crisostomo, Melissa M.
Li, Peng
Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.
Longhurst, John C.

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