Organ Culture Techniques

Publication Title: 
Current Medicinal Chemistry

The development of neuroactive drugs is a time consuming procedure. Candidate drugs must be run through a battery of tests, including receptor studies and behavioural tests on animals. As a rule, numerous substances with promising properties as assessed in receptor studies must be eliminated from the development pipeline in advanced test phases because of unforeseen problems like intolerable side-effects or unsatisfactory performance in the whole organism. Clearly, test systems of intermediate complexity would alleviate this inefficiency.

Author(s): 
Drexler, B.
Hentschke, H.
Antkowiak, B.
Grasshoff, C.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Intravenous anesthetics exert a component of their actions via potentiating inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by ?-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABAARs). Phasic and tonic inhibition is mediated by distinct populations of GABAARs, with the majority of phasic inhibition by subtypes composed of ?1-3??2 subunits, whereas tonic inhibition is dependent on subtypes assembled from ?4-6?? subunits.

Author(s): 
Kretschmannova, Karla
Hines, Rochelle M.
Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel
Terunuma, Miho
Tretter, Verena
Jurd, Rachel
Kelz, Max B.
Moss, Stephen J.
Davies, Paul A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Serr. (Aegle marmelos) leaves were extensively used in the Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of Indian medicine as an anti-diabetic agent, which serves as hypoglycemic agent. However, the significance of this plant on secondary complications of diabetes such as cataract remained unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible anti-cataractous activity of Aegle marmelos against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic cataract in rats.

Author(s): 
Sankeshi, Venu
Kumar, P. Anil
Naik, R. Ravindar
Sridhar, G.
Kumar, M. Praveen
Gopal, V. V. Hara
Raju, T. Naga
Publication Title: 
Immunology

The present studies analysed the uterine free secretory component (SC) response to steroid hormones, and correlated effects on SC with those on IgA. Administration of oestradiol for 3 days to ovariectomized rats significantly increased the levels of SC in uterine secretions, when compared to those in saline-injected controls. This response was dose-dependent and specific for oestrogens, since progesterone, testosterone and glucocorticoids had no effect. The oestradiol-induced elevation in SC levels occurred in parallel with that of IgA.

Author(s): 
Sullivan, D. A.
Underdown, B. J.
Wira, C. R.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Acidification, which occurs in some pathological conditions, such as ischemia and hypoxia often induces neurotoxicity. The activation of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are highly permeable to calcium, has been considered the main target responsible for calcium overload in ischemic/hypoxic brain. However, the influence of extracellular proton on GABAergic synaptic transmission is not well understood.

Author(s): 
Zhou, Chunyi
Xiao, Cheng
Deng, Chunyu
Hong Ye, Jiang
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cellular Physiology

Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) plays a key role in connective tissue remodeling, scarring, and fibrosis. The effects of mechanical forces on TGF-beta1 and collagen deposition are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that brief (10 min) static tissue stretch attenuates TGF-beta1-mediated new collagen deposition in response to injury.

Author(s): 
Bouffard, Nicole A.
Cutroneo, Kenneth R.
Badger, Gary J.
White, Sheryl L.
Buttolph, Thomas R.
Ehrlich, H. Paul
Stevens-Tuttle, Debbie
Langevin, Helene M.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Labetalol, a combined alpha1, beta1, and beta2 adrenoceptor-blocking drug, has been shown to have analgesic properties in vivo. To determine the underlying mechanisms, we examined its effects on GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and spontaneous firings of rat ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons, either mechanically dissociated, or in acute brain slices. These PAG neurons mediate opioid-mediated analgesia and pain transmission and are under tonic control of GABAergic interneurons.

Author(s): 
Xiao, Cheng
Zhou, Chunyi
Atlas, Glen
Delphin, Ellise
Ye, Jiang Hong
Publication Title: 
Nature Neuroscience

Synaptic dysfunction caused by oligomeric assemblies of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) has been linked to cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Here we found that incubation of primary cortical neurons with oligomeric Abeta decreases the level of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2), a phospholipid that regulates key aspects of neuronal function. The destabilizing effect of Abeta on PtdIns(4,5)P2 metabolism was Ca2+-dependent and was not observed in neurons that were derived from mice that are haploinsufficient for Synj1.

Author(s): 
Berman, Diego E.
Dall'Armi, Claudia
Voronov, Sergey V.
McIntire, Laura Beth J.
Zhang, Hong
Moore, Ann Z.
Staniszewski, Agniezka
Arancio, Ottavio
Kim, Tae-Wan
Di Paolo, Gilbert
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy

BACKGROUND: Proton (H+) secretion and the HVCN1 H+ channel are part of the innate host defense mechanism of the airways. The objective of this study was to determine H+ secretion in asthmatic and nonasthmatic patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in freshly excised human sinonasal tissue. METHODS: Nasal or sinus mucosa from subjects with three different conditions (normal, CRS, and CRS with asthma) was harvested during sinus surgery. The equilibrium pH and the rate of H+ secretion were measured in an Ussing chamber using the pH-stat titration technique.

Author(s): 
Cho, Do-Yeon
Hajighasemi, Mohammad
Hwang, Peter H.
Illek, Beate
Fischer, Horst
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: As one of the least studied bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), BMP9 is one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is known to play an important role in development, differentiation and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigate the effect of RA signaling on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both primary MPCs and MPC line are used for BMP9 and RA stimulation. Recombinant adenoviruses are used to deliver BMP9, RARalpha and RXRalpha into MPCs.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Wenli
Deng, Zhong-Liang
Chen, Liang
Zuo, Guo-Wei
Luo, Qing
Shi, Qiong
Zhang, Bing-Qiang
Wagner, Eric R.
Rastegar, Farbod
Kim, Stephanie H.
Jiang, Wei
Shen, Jikun
Huang, Enyi
Gao, Yanhong
Gao, Jian-Li
Zhou, Jian-Zhong
Luo, Jinyong
Huang, Jiayi
Luo, Xiaoji
Bi, Yang
Su, Yuxi
Yang, Ke
Liu, Hao
Luu, Hue H.
Haydon, Rex C.
He, Tong-Chuan
He, Bai-Cheng

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