Alloantibody can be a major barrier to successful organ transplantation; however, therapy to control antibody production or to alter its impact on the allograft remains limited. The goal of this review is to examine the regulatory steps that are involved in the generation of alloreactive B cells, with a specific emphasis on how known mechanisms relate to clinical situations in transplant recipients. Thus, we will examine the process of activation of mature, naÔve B cells and how this relates to de novo antibody production.
Religious discussion of human organs and tissues has concentrated largely on donation for therapeutic purposes. The retrieval and use of human tissue samples in diagnostic, research, and education contexts have, by contrast, received very little direct theological attention. Initially undertaken at the behest of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, this essay seeks to explore the theological and religious questions embedded in nontherapeutic use of human tissue.
In this article, I address the issue of the sale of human organs and the moral implications of a market in human organs under the aegis of Christian Bioethics. I argue that moral issues of this kind cannot be adequately be addressed from the point of view of moral frameworks, which point exclusively to procedural norms. Rather, a moral perspective must embody some substantive norms derived from a particular content-full moral or theological perspective. This substantive norms to which I appeal in this article are those of Roman Catholicism.
One of the more polarizing policies proposed to alleviate the organ shortage is financial payment of donors in return for organs. A priori and empirical investigation concludes that such systems are ethically inadequate. A new methodological approach towards policy formation and implementation is proposed which places ethical concerns at its core. From a hypothetical secular origin, the optimal ethical policy structure concerning organ donation is derived. However, when applied universally, it does not yield ideal results for every culture and society due to region-specific variation.
[I]nterest in animals as a source of organs and tissues for human beings remains strong. New developments in immunosuppression technology promise to lower the technical barriers to a routine use of nonhumans as organ donors, and the image of colonies of animals kept at the ready for supplying the growing human need for new organs seems a much more plausible scenario now than it did when broached by transplantation specialists in the Sixties. As Arthur Caplan has powerfully argued, the prospects that other sources of organs may resolve the supply problem are grim....
Bioethical discourse on organ donation covers a wide range of topics, from informed consent procedures and scarcity issues up to 'transplant tourism' and 'organ trade'. This paper presents a 'depth ethics' approach, notably focussing on the tensions, conflicts and ambiguities concerning the status of the human body (as something which constitutes a whole, while at the same time being a set of replaceable elements or parts). These will be addressed from a psychoanalytical (Lacanian) angle. First, I will outline Lacan's view on embodiment as such.
The aim of this study was to explore the public's feelings and ideas with regard to receiving transplants of different origins. Sixty-nine individuals with varying sociodemographic background, selected from samples who had responded to a questionnaire on receiving and donating organs, were interviewed in-depth. A wide variety of reactions was displayed.
Family members of organ donors receive anonymous information about the transplant recipients. Also, they often receive written communication from the recipients themselves and or the recipient's family members, expressing gratitude for the generous gifts they donated. The feedback received by donor families serves to affirm that their altruistic decision to donate life-saving and life-enhancing gifts has saved or dramatically improved the lives of the recipients.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of adolescents who underwent organ transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies that explored the experiences of adolescents who underwent organ transplantation. We searched 5 electronic databases (to week 3 of July 2008) and reference lists of relevant articles. RESULTS: Eighteen articles reporting the experiences of 313 adolescent organ transplant recipients were included.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To understand how the recipients of cadaver-harvested organs and donor families perceive the role of the transplant team and transplant coordinator in bringing them into contact. BACKGROUND: Studies dispute the benefits and disbenefits of contact and their differential weights with the two parties. For the donor family, contact with the recipient after a successful transplant renders positive meaning to the tragedy of the family's loss, but expectations of the recipient can also be disappointed.