OBJECTIVES: This study has intended to investigate longevity of subcutaneous fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SF-MSCs) under extensive culturing. It has also focused on optimization of culture media for them over prolonged periods in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated SF-MSCs with reference to phenotypic characterization, proliferative ability, karyotype stability and differentiation potency with early (P3) and late passage (P20) conditions, using four different media, DMEM-LG, ALPHA-MEM, DMEM-F12 and DMEM-KO.
BACKGROUND: Evaluating copy numbers of given genes in Plasmodium falciparum parasites is of major importance for laboratory-based studies or epidemiological surveys. For instance, pfmdr1 gene amplification has been associated with resistance to quinine derivatives and several genes involved in anti-oxidant defence may play an important role in resistance to antimalarial drugs, although their potential involvement has been overlooked.
Several drug development strategies, including optimization of new antimalarial drug combinations, have been used to counter malaria drug resistance. We evaluated the malaria Sybr green I-based fluorescence (MSF) assay for its use in in vitro drug combination sensitivity assays. Drug combinations of previously published synergistic (atovaquone and proguanil), indifferent (chloroquine and azithromycin), and antagonistic (chloroquine and atovaquone) antimalarial drug interactions were tested against Plasmodium falciparum strains D6 and W2 using the MSF assay.
Emergence of artemisinin resistance in Cambodia highlights the importance of characterizing resistance to this class of drugs. Previously, intermediate levels of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum were generated in vitro for artelinic acid (AL) and artemisinin (QHS). Here we expanded on earlier selection efforts to produce levels of clinically relevant concentrations, and the resulting lines were characterized genotypically and phenotypically. Recrudescence assays determined the ability of resistant and parent lines to recover following exposure to clinically relevant levels of drugs.
With more than 40% of the world's population at risk, 200-300 million infections each year, and an estimated 1.2 million deaths annually, malaria remains one of the most important public health problems of mankind today. With the propensity of malaria parasites to rapidly develop resistance to newly developed therapies, and the recent failures of artemisinin-based drugs in Southeast Asia, there is an urgent need for new antimalarial compounds with novel mechanisms of action to be developed against multidrug resistant malaria.
Synergistic liquid-liquid extractive spectrophotometric determination of gold(III) using 1-(2',4'-dinitro aminophenyl)-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,4-dihydro pyrimidine-2-thiol [2',4'-dinitro APTPT] has been described. Equal volumes (5cm(3)) of the 2',4'-dinitro APTPT (0.02molL(-1)) in the presence of pyridine (0.5molL(-1)) form an orange-red coloured ternary complex with gold(III) of molar ratio 1:1:1 at pH 1.8-2.4 with 5min of shaking. The absorbance of coloured organic layer in 1,2-dichloroethane is measured spectrophotometrically at 445nm against reagent blank.
Estrogen is a powerful endogenous and exogenous neuroprotective agent in animal models of brain injury, including focal cerebral ischemia. Although this protection has been demonstrated in several different treatment and injury paradigms, it has not been demonstrated in focal cerebral ischemia induced by intraparenchymal endothelin-1 injection, a model with many advantages over other models of experimental focal ischemia. Reproductively mature female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and divided into placebo and estradiol-treated groups.
An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI-5011) was shown to be hypoglycemic in animal models for Type 2 diabetes and contains at least 6 bioactive compounds responsible for its anti-diabetic properties. To evaluate the bioavailability of the active compounds, high fat dietary induced obese C57BL/6J male mice were gavaged with PMI-5011 at 500mg/kg body weight, after 4h of food restriction.
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Blueberry fruits are known as a rich source of anthocyanin components. In this study we demonstrate that anthocyanins from blueberry have the potency to alleviate symptoms of hyperglycemia in diabetic C57b1/6J mice. The anti-diabetic activity of different anthocyanin-related extracts was evaluated using the pharmaceutically acceptable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system: Labrasol. Treatment by gavage (500 mg/kg body wt) with a phenolic-rich extract and an anthocyanin-enriched fraction formulated with Labrasol lowered elevated blood glucose levels by 33 and 51%, respectively.
CONTEXT: Inflammation is increasingly recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD), even in individuals who are otherwise medically healthy. Most studies in search of sources for this increased inflammation have focused on factors such as psychosocial stress and obesity that are known to activate inflammatory processes and increase the risk for depression.