The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
BACKGROUND: Most survival studies of the elderly population have set their baselines for first examinations between 60 and 80 years. The rapidly increasing numbers of exceptionally old persons call for knowledge about determinants of exceptional survival. METHODS: The Swedish Centenarian Study followed 100 centenarians from the age of 100 to death of the entire cohort, by age 111 years. A biomedical, psychological, and social multivariate survival analysis was performed based on factors identified as important in earlier studies of older adults.
This study is aimed at testing the measurement properties of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) for the assessment of dispositional optimism by employing item response theory (IRT) analyses. The LOT-R was administered to a large sample of 2,862 Italian adults. First, confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the theoretical conceptualization of the construct measured by the LOT-R as a single bipolar dimension. Subsequently, IRT analyses for polytomous, ordered response category data were applied to investigate the items' properties.
Gaze direction is a vital communicative channel through which people transmit information to each other. By signaling the locus of social attention, gaze cues convey information about the relative importance of objects, including other people, in the environment. For the most part, this information is communicated via patterns of gaze direction, with gaze shifts signaling changes in the objects of attention. Noting the relevance of gaze cues in social cognition, we speculated that gaze shifts may modulate people's evaluations of others.
We examined whether it is possible to identify the emotional content of behaviour from point-light displays where pairs of actors are engaged in interpersonal communication. These actors displayed a series of emotions, which included sadness, anger, joy, disgust, fear, and romantic love. In experiment 1, subjects viewed brief clips of these point-light displays presented the right way up and upside down. In experiment 2, the importance of the interaction between the two figures in the recognition of emotion was examined.
Shinrigaku Kenkyu: The Japanese Journal of Psychology
The experiment of this paper studied the role social orientation would play in double-dilemma situations. In a double-dilemma situation, social dilemmas exist both between and within groups; a cooperation choice at the within-groups level is considered a defection choice at the between-groups level, and vice versa. Using such a situation, whether "others" in other-orientedness are limited to those of the ingroup or include those of a competing group was examined.
Our experiments demonstrate that morphine and haloperidol produce two distinct and contrasting behavioral states, which can be thought of as exaggerated, isolated, and simplified forms of organized adaptive behavioral states functioning as components of normal motivated behavior. Haloperidol catalepsy constitutes an organized state in which tonic reactions subserving the maintenance of stable static equilibrium prevail, at the expense of phasic locomotor reactions.
The cardinal feature of multiple personality disorder (MPD) is the existence of two or more alter personality states that exchange control over the behaviour of an individual. Numerous clinical reports suggest that these alter personality states exhibit distinct physiological differences. We investigated differential autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity across nine subjects with MPD and five controls, who produced "alter" personality states by simulation and by hypnosis or deep relaxation.
Considerations derived from the fields of physics, philosophy, anthropology, and psychology suggest that our popular conception of time as a unidirectional and uniform flow may not be an adequate description of the human experience of time. Indeed, other dimensions of temporality may constitute important aspects of human phenomenology with respect to both adaptive and maladaptive or psychopathological mental states. Exploration of the temporal aspect of experience and temporal reorientation may be helpful psychotherapeutic maneuvers that are greatly facilitated by hypnosis.