Liver X receptors function as central transcriptional regulators for lipid homeostasis, for which agonists have been developed as potential drugs for treatment of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndromes. Because dysregulation of lipid metabolism has been implicated in sex hormone-dependent cancers, we investigated the effect of liver X receptor agonists on prostate and breast cancer cell proliferation.
Androgen-dependent human LNCaP 104-S tumor xenografts progressed to androgen-independent relapsed tumors (104-Rrel) in athymic mice after castration. The growth of 104-Rrel tumors was suppressed by testosterone. However, 104-Rrel tumors adapted to androgen and regrew as androgen-stimulated 104-Radp tumors. Androgen receptor expression in tumors and serum prostate-specific antigen increased during progression from 104-S to 104-Rrel but decreased during transition from 104-Rrel to 104-Radp. Expression of genes related to liver X receptor (LXR) signaling changed during progression.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
T0901317 is a potent non-steroidal synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. T0901317 blocked androgenic stimulation of the proliferation of androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells and androgenic suppression of the proliferation of androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R2 cells, inhibited the transcriptional activation of an androgen-dependent reporter gene by androgen, and suppressed gene and protein expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a target gene of androgen receptor (AR) without affecting gene and protein expression of AR.
Activation of liver X receptors (LXRs) has been reported to reduce atherosclerosis in mouse models. However, this can be associated with enhanced liver de novo lipogenesis and elevation of plasma triglyceride-rich VLDL, which may limit its clinical use. In this study, we administered orally the LXR agonist T0901317 to male LDLR-/- mice fed a Western diet. This induced a persistent enhanced hypertriglyceridemia by largely increasing plasma triglyceride-rich VLDL.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Liver X receptor (LXR) agonists have the potential to treat atherosclerosis based on their ability to enhance reverse cholesterol transport. However, their side effects, such as induction of liver lipogenesis and triglyceridemia, may limit their pharmaceutical development.
AIMS: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a critical role in cell growth and inflammation during the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Several members of nuclear receptor superfamily, including liver X receptors (LXRalpha and LXRbeta), have been shown to suppress inflammatory responses, but little is known about their effects in cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated LXR expression patterns in pressure overload-induced hypertrophic hearts and the hypertrophic growth of the LXRalpha-deficient hearts from mice (C57/B6) in response to pressure overload.
The effects of liver X receptor (LXR) agonists on plasma lipid homeostasis, especially triglyceride metabolism are controversial. Here we examined the effect of long-term activation of LXR on plasma lipid homeostasis in wild-type C57BL/6 and LDL receptor deficient (LDLR-/-) mice given the LXR agonist T0901317 for 4 weeks. LXR agonist treatment of wild-type mice decreased plasma total triglycerides by 35% due to a significant reduction of plasma VLDL triglycerides. In contrast, in LDLR-/- mice T0901317 treatment increased plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Potent synthetic nonsteroidal liver X receptor (LXR) agonists like T0901317 induce triglyceridaemia and fatty liver, effects not observed with some natural and synthetic steroidal, relatively weak agonists of LXR. To determine if potency is responsible for the lack of side effects with some steroidal agonists, we investigated the in vivo effects of a novel steroidal LXR agonist, ATI-111, that is more potent than T0901317.
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptors superfamily and are transcription factors activated by specific ligands. Liver X receptors (LXR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptors and have been shown to play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. From the previous screening of several medicinal plants for potential partial PPARγ agonists, the extracts of Cornus alternifolia were found to exhibit promising bioactivity.
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) play key roles in fatty acid metabolism in liver and other metabolic tissues in an isozyme-specific manner. In this study, we examined the effects of a fructose-enriched diet on expressions of ACSL isoforms in the liver of hamsters. We showed that the fructose diet markedly reduced the mRNA and protein expressions of ACSL3 in hamster liver without significant effects on other ACSLs.