CONTEXT: Randomized controlled trials have been developed essentially in the context of pharmacological treatments (ie, oral drugs; intra-articular injection; and topical, intramuscular, and intravenous treatments), but assessment of the effectiveness of nonpharmacological treatments (ie, surgery, arthroscopy, joint lavage, rehabilitation, acupuncture, and education) presents specific issues.
BACKGROUND: Thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban (R) is superior to enoxaparin in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS). However, rivaroxaban has never been directly compared with fondaparinux (F), which also shows superior efficacy over enoxaparin. The clinical impact of switching from fondaparinux to rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban or fondaparinux thromboprophylaxis in unselected patients undergoing MOS.
INTRODUCTION: The Narcotrend is a new EEG monitor designed to measure the depth of anaesthesia based on a 6-letter classification from A (awake) to F (general anaesthesia with increasing burst suppression) and divided into 14 substages (A, B0-2, C0-2, D0-2, E0,1, F0,1). This study was designed to investigate the assessment of the depth of anaesthesia as measured by the Narcotrend in comparison with bispectral index monitoring (BIS). METHODS: Both BIS and Narcotrend EEG electrodes were positioned on the patient's forehead as recommended by the manufacturers.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Combined (local and general) anaesthesia or Balanced (intravenous analgesics and inhalational hypnotics) anaesthesia are commonly used in paediatrics. The authors have investigated the influence of both types of anaesthesia on the requirements of sevoflurane to maintain an adequate level of hypnosis as measured by Bispectral index (at around 50) monitoring in paediatric orthopaedic patients.
BACKGROUND: Memory function under anesthesia is undesired but may arise from light hypnosis as well as stress-enhanced learning during surgery. The bispectral index (BIS, Aspect Medical Systems, Norwood, MA) is a monitor of hypnotic state that can help to avoid light hypnosis (i.e., BIS above 60). This study tested the hypothesis that BIS-guided anesthesia maintaining BIS 50-60 reduces the likelihood of memory function under anesthesia.
BACKGROUND: In health services research comparative studies between orthopaedics and naturopathy are necessary. They allow evidence based decisions between individual therapeutical alternatives as well as decisions on health politics, e.g. concerning allocation of resources. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A controlled prospective cohort study is presented. Conservatively treated patients were recruited for the study, if they needed in-patient treatment because of chronic back pain.
BACKGROUND: This study compares orthopaedic and naturopathic inpatient treatment concepts for back pain with regards to therapeutic efficacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A controlled prospective cohort study is presented.
STUDY DESIGN: Serial, cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys of noninstitutionalized US adults. OBJECTIVE: To examine expenditures on common ambulatory health services for the management of back and neck conditions. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although it is well recognized that national costs associated with back and neck conditions have grown considerably in recent years, little is known about the costs of care for specific ambulatory health services that are used to manage this population.
The nature and origin of disorders of masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint are discussed. Their psychosomatic origin is suggested. Methods of direct and indirect psychotherapy as well as psychopharmacotherapy were included in complex rehabilitation. Computer videoautotraining with biological adaptive feedback was used. 105 patients (31 men and 74 women) at the age of 16-70 years (mean age 34,9+/-1,3 years) were examined. For the first time dysfunction computer arthrophonography of joint sound was used.