Osmolar Concentration

Publication Title: 
Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et MÈtabolisme

We examined the effects of diets based on a low isoflavone or a high isoflavone soy protein isolates in normal, growth-hormone receptor knockout and Ames dwarf, and Prop 1 (df) mice that are hypoinsulinemic, insulin-sensitive, and exceptionally long-lived, as well as in growth hormone transgenic mice that are hyperinsulinemic, insulin-resistant, dyslipidemic, and short-lived. Soybean diets tended to normalize plasma cholesterol levels in dwarf and transgenic mice, while low isoflavone diet reduced plasma triglycerides in most of the examined genotypes.

Author(s): 
Bartke, A.
Peluso, M. R.
Moretz, N.
Wright, C.
Bonkowski, M.
Winters, T. A.
Shanahan, M. F.
Kopchick, J. J.
Banz, W. J.
Publication Title: 
Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Author(s): 
Lee, M. S.
Gallagher, R. C.
Bradley, J.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Author(s): 
Lee, M. S.
Gallagher, R. C.
Bradley, J.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Uridine is a therapy for hereditary orotic aciduria and is being investigated in other disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, including toxicities resulting from treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV. Historically, the use of uridine as a therapeutic agent has been limited by poor bioavailability. A food supplement containing nucleosides, NucleomaxX®, has been reported to raise plasma uridine to supraphysiologic levels.

Author(s): 
Weinberg, Melissa E.
Roman, Mark C.
Jacob, Peyton
Wen, Michael
Cheung, Polly
Walker, Ulrich A.
Mulligan, Kathleen
Schambelan, Morris
Publication Title: 
Experimental and Molecular Pathology

Hallmark features of type 2 diabetes mellitus include glucosuria and polyuria. Further, renal aquaporin 2 is pivotal to regulation of fluid excretion and urine osmolality. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the db/db mouse displays increased glucosuria and fluid excretion but reduced urine osmolality in association with decreased renal aquaporin 2 level. In addition, we examined the effect of chromium picolinate (Cr(pic)3) which is purported to improve glycemic control.

Author(s): 
Mozaffari, Mahmood S.
Abdelsayed, Rafik
Liu, Jun Yao
Zakhary, Ibrahim
Baban, Babak
Publication Title: 
Resuscitation

Resuscitation of the brain after cardiac arrest requires homogeneous blood recirculation which, however, may be impaired by low reperfusion pressure, intravascular coagulation, increased blood viscosity and endothelial cell swelling. Intravascular volume expansion induced by intravenous infusion of a small volume of hypertonic solution has previously been shown to improve nutritional flow to the brain after severe hemorrhage shock. We therefore investigated whether this therapy also improves cerebral reperfusion after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Author(s): 
Fischer, M.
Hossmann, K. A.
Publication Title: 
Integrative Cancer Therapies

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for chemoprevention against colon polyp formation. A total of 60 C57bl/6 mice were divided into 3 groups based on diet. One group received a low-fat, rodent chow diet (AIN76A). The second group received a high-fat "Western-style" diet (HFWD). The third group was fed the same HFWD with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement. Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months.

Author(s): 
Aslam, Muhammad N.
Paruchuri, Tejaswi
Bhagavathula, Narasimharao
Varani, James
Publication Title: 
Calcified Tissue International

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months.

Author(s): 
Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem
Kreider, Jaclynn M.
Paruchuri, Tejaswi
Bhagavathula, Narasimharao
DaSilva, Marissa
Zernicke, Ronald F.
Goldstein, Steven A.
Varani, James
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

CONTEXT: Most studies examining associations between circulating vitamin D and disease are based on a single measure of vitamin D, which may not reflect levels over time, particularly because vitamin D concentrations vary by season. Few studies evaluated how well multiple 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] measures track within the same individual over time.

Author(s): 
Major, Jacqueline M.
Graubard, Barry I.
Dodd, Kevin W.
Iwan, Allison
Alexander, Bruce H.
Linet, Martha S.
Freedman, D. Michal
Publication Title: 
Molecular and Cellular Biology

Calorie restriction (CR) extends life span in many different organisms, including mammals. We describe here a novel pathway that extends the life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mother cells but does not involve a reduction in caloric content of the media, i.e., there is growth of yeast cells in the presence of a high concentration of external osmolytes. Like CR, this longevity-promoting response to high osmolarity requires SIR2, suggesting a common mechanism of life span regulation.

Author(s): 
Kaeberlein, Matt
Andalis, Alex A.
Fink, Gerald R.
Guarente, Leonard
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