BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Artemisinin and its derivatives exhibit potent immunosuppressive activity. The purpose of the current study was to examine the immunosuppressive activity of artemether directly on T lymphocytes and to explore its potential mode of action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In vitro, T-cell proliferation was measured using [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay in cells stimulated with ConA, alloantigen and anti-CD3 antibody. CFSE-labeled cell division and cell cycle distribution were monitored by flow cytometry.
BACKGROUND: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is linked to the development of asthma. Anti-malarial drug artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, the principal active component of a medicinal plant Artemisia annua, and has been shown to inhibit PI3K/Akt activity. We hypothesized that artesunate may attenuate allergic asthma via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) developed airway inflammation.
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. The available treatment options have major limitations owing to low efficacy, associated adverse events and compliance issues. Therefore, the health burden of bronchial asthma is increasing globally at an alarming rate, providing a strong impetus for the development of new therapeutics. Myrica sapida is known traditionally in Ayurveda to possess anti-asthmatic activity. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the bronchodilator and anti-anaphylactic activity of the stem bark of Myrica sapida.
Allium cepa (Family Liliaceae) is a reputed Indian medicinal herb that is prescribed as an effective remedy for several ailments in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate its efficacy against various events responsible for Type I allergic reactions. A herbal fraction (ALC-02) from A. cepa (bulb) inhibited histamine release and attenuated intracellular calcium levels in Compound 48/80-induced rat peritoneal mast cells. It also prevented Compound 48/80-mediated systemic anaphylaxis while lowering histamine levels in plasma.
Recent studies have reported that APC can present particulate exogenous Ag in the context of class I MHC to CD8+ CTL, and our laboratory demonstrated that IL-3 could enhance CTL generation to exogenous Ag. In this paper, we wished to determine whether presentation of particulate Ag could be enhanced by IL-3. A T cell hybridoma, B3Z86/90.14 (B3Z) restricted to Ova/Kb, was used as an indicator for presentation of particulate Ag with class I MHC. When activated, this hybridoma expresses lacZ, allowing a simple colorimetric measurement of Ag-specific T cell stimulation.
OBJECTIVE: Bromelain, a clinically used pineapple extract and natural product, has reported anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bromelain treatment in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). METHODS: To establish AAD, mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal (i.p.) OVA/alum and challenged with daily OVA aerosols. Mice were treated i.p. with either saline, 2 or 6 mg/kg bromelain, twice daily for four consecutive days.
Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized wildtype (WT) and endotoxin-resistant (ER) mice developed similar degrees of airways eosinophilia and serum OVA-specific IgE levels after acute aerosolized OVA challenge. WT mice demonstrated methacholine hyperreactivity, whereas ER mice showed no change in responsiveness. With chronic aerosolized OVA challenge, both WT and ER mice developed local tolerance, with resolution of airway eosinophilia but persistence of anti-OVA IgE in serum.
Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
BACKGROUND: The effect of ageing on several pathologic features of allergic asthma (pulmonary inflammation, eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion), and their relationship with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lung inflammation, mucus metaplasia and AHR in relationship with age in murine models of allergic asthma comparing young and older mice. METHODS: Young (6 weeks) and older (6, 12, 18 months) BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA).
Mice sensitized to OVA and subjected to acute OVA aerosol exposures develop allergic airway disease (AAD). However, chronic continuous Ag exposure results in resolution of AAD and the development of local inhalational tolerance (LIT). Because we have previously observed the persistence of B cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and hilar lymph nodes (HLN) at the resolution stage of this model, we investigated the role of B cells in the modulation of AAD.
Compared to healthy subjects, individuals with allergic airway disease (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinitis) have enhanced inflammatory responses to inhaled ozone. We created a rodent model of ozone-enhanced allergic nasal responses in Brown Norway rats to test the therapeutic effects of the dietary supplement gamma-tocopherol (gammaT). Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats were intranasally challenged with 0% or 0.5% OVA (in saline) on Days 1 and 2, and then exposed to 0 or 1 ppm ozone (eight hours/day) on Days 4 and 5.