Menopause is the final step in the process referred to as ovarian ageing. The age related decrease in follicle numbers dictates the onset of cycle irregularity and the final cessation of menses. The parallel decay in oocyte quality contributes to the gradual decline in fertility and the final occurrence of natural sterility. Endocrine changes mainly relate to the decline in the negative feedback from ovarian factors at the hypothalamo-pituitary unit.
Neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of neem were tested on adult Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to determine their effects on the longevity, fecundity and ovarian development. Different combinations of neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of a neem compound incorporated with sugar solution and adult rearing diets were tested. The Laboratory tests showed that ingestion of neem can significantly reduced the longevity and fertility of both the fly species.
Since Rita Levi Montalcini and Stanley Cohen received Nobel Prize for their pioneering work on nerve growth factor (NGF), its role in female reproductive system has been reinforced in last two decades. The neurotrophins (NT) including nerve growth factor (NGF) are a family of related growth factors and their respective receptor tyrosine kinases that are of major importance in the regulation of neuronal survival and differentiation.
The effects of endosulfan on the weights of the liver, adrenal and ovary, on pentobarbital blood and brain levels and on sleeping time (ST) have been investigated in female rats after daily oral doses of 0, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg for a period of 7 or 15 days. No significant change in body weight was observed. With higher doses (2.5--5.0 mg/kg) the liver weight was significantly increased, but ovary and adrenal weights did not increase. Endosulfan treatment shortened sleeping time, while induction time was significantly increased.
Toxic effects of beryllium salts on the reproductive organs of cyclic adult female albino rats have been studied. An attempt was made to overcome these effects using an Ayurvedic medicine Liv-52 (Himalaya Drug Co., Bombay). Liv-52-primed rats (1 mL/rat/day for 15 days) were exposed to beryllium nitrate intravenously and were sacrificed at different time intervals. At autopsy ovary, uterus, cervix, and vagina were processed for biochemical and histopathologic examination.
OBJECTIVE: Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Until recently, a significant lack of an appropriate animal model has hindered the discovery of early detection markers for ovarian cancer. The aging hen serves as an animal model because it spontaneously develops ovarian adenocarcinomas similar in histological appearance to the human disease. E-cadherin is an adherens protein that is down-regulated in many cancers, but has been shown to be up-regulated in primary human ovarian cancer.
Abnormalities in insulin/IGF-1 signaling are associated with infertility, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we use liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to show that the C. elegans insulin/FOXO pathway regulates the metabolism of locally acting lipid hormones called prostaglandins. C. elegans prostaglandins are synthesized without prostaglandin G/H synthase homologs, the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Bone loss during perimenopause, an estrogen-sufficient period, correlates with elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and decreased inhibins A and B. Utilizing a recently described ovotoxin-induced animal model of perimenopause characterized by a prolonged estrogen-replete period of elevated FSH, we examined longitudinal changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and their association with FSH.
Various age-related diseases increase in incidence during perimenopause. However, our understanding of the effects of aging compared with hormonal changes of perimenopause in mediating these disease risks is incomplete, in part due to the lack of an experimental perimenopause model. We therefore aimed to determine whether manipulation of the transition to ovarian failure in rats via the use of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) could be used to model and accelerate hormonal changes characteristic of perimenopause.
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Chronic inflammation has been linked to cancer. Prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) is the most pro-inflammatory lipid and one of the downstream products of 2 isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy and mainly occurs in older women. The factors that contribute to the correlation of age and ovarian cancer are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of COX enzymes and PGE₂ levels in ovaries and correlate them to ovarian cancer and aging.