BACKGROUND: Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians.
In lower organisms, increased expression of the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sir2 augments lifespan. The mechanism through which this life extension is mediated remains incompletely understood. Here we have examined the cellular effects of overexpression of SIRT1, the closest mammalian ortholog of Sir2. In PC12 cells, increased expression of the NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 reduces cellular oxygen consumption by approximately 25%. We further demonstrate that SIRT1 expression can alter the transcriptional activity of the mitochondrial biogenesis coactivator PGC-1alpha.
Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et MÈtabolisme
Compounds that delay aging in model organisms may be of significant interest to antiaging medicine, since these substances potentially provide pharmaceutical approaches to promote healthy lifespan in humans. The aim of the study was to test whether pharmaceutical concentrations of the glycolytic inhibitor lonidamine are capable of extending lifespan in a nematodal model organism for aging processes, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Several hundreds of adult C. elegans roundworms were maintained on agar plates and fed E. coli strain OP50 bacteria.
The CISD2 gene, which is an evolutionarily conserved novel gene, encodes a transmembrane protein primarily associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane. Significantly, the CISD2 gene is located within the candidate region on chromosome 4q where a genetic component for human longevity has been mapped. Previously, we have shown that Cisd2 deficiency shortens lifespan resulting in premature aging in mice. Additionally, an age-dependent decrease in Cisd2 expression has been detected during normal aging.
This work was undertaken to study tissue oxygen exchange and oxidative processes in the long-lived individuals who were assumed as the physiologically aging individuals. Oxygen tension was assessed in forearm subcutaneous cellular tissue by means of the polarographic method while performing 10 min oxygen inhalation tests (with spontaneous oxygemogram recording) and a 10 min clamping of vessels. The obtained data served as the tissue oxygen exchange indicator. This approach made us possible to evaluate the oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake.
Studies in mutant, gene knock-out and transgenic mice have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH) signalling has a major impact on ageing and longevity. Growth hormone-resistant and GH-deficient animals live much longer than their normal siblings, while transgenic mice overexpressing GH are short lived. Actions of GH in juvenile animals appear to be particularly important for life extension and responsible for various phenotypic characteristics of long-lived hypopituitary mutants.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of widely used nanomaterials in industry and biomedicine. The potential impact of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was evaluated using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a toxicological animal model. SWCNTs are extremely hydrophobic to form large agglomerates in aqueous solutions. Highly soluble amide-modified SWCNTs (a-SWCNTs) were therefore used in the present study so that the exact impact of SWCNTs could be studied. No significant toxicity was observed in C. elegans due to the amide modification.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Aging is the progressive accumulation of changes with time that are associated with or responsible for the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies advancing age. These time-related changes are attributed to the aging process. The nature of the aging process has been the subject of considerable speculation. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the sum of the deleterious free radical reactions going on continuously throughout the cells and tissues constitutes the aging process or is a major contributor to it.
Nothing has been demonstrated to slow or reverse the primary aging process in humans; instead, the factors that are known to affect longevity do so by their influence on disease development, which is part of secondary aging. Preventive strategies against secondary aging are aimed at maintaining health and functional capacity and rectangularizing, rather than extending, the survival curve. Interventions for preventive geriatrics and successful aging include a low-fat, low-energy diet with a high content of fruits and vegetables; exercise; and hormone replacement.