European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology
Little information is available concerning the influence of subconscious mechanisms on neuroendocrine function, more specifically, proenkephalin peptide F release. Ten men [5 middle distance runners (21.6 (SD 0.54 years) and 5 untrained men (24.0 (SD 4.3 years)] consented to be volunteers in this investigation. Submaximal exercise intensities of 25% and 50% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2) (8 min stages) were used for both the control and hypnosis treatments.
The primary purpose of the present review was to critique studies that examined the influence of psychological state (i.e., affect, perception, and cognition) on running economy (RE). However, only six studies included measures of oxygen consumption at a given workload (i.e., economy) and used running as the mode of exercise. Two of the six studies indicated that increased tension was highly correlated (r = 0.81) with increased oxygen cost and that reductions in tension, using stress management techniques, improved RE.
The perception of effort during exercise and its relationship to fatigue is still not well understood. Although several scales have been developed to quantify exertion Borg's 15-point ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) scale has been adopted as a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating whole body exertion during exercise. However, Borg's category-ratio scale is useful in quantifying sensations of exertion related to those variables that rise exponentially with increases in exercise intensity.
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
This study aimed to characterize the neural networks involved in patients with chronic low-back pain during hypnoanalgesia. PET was performed in 2 states of consciousness, normal alertness and hypnosis. Two groups of patients received direct or indirect analgesic suggestion. The normal alertness state showed activations in a cognitive-sensory pain modulation network, including frontotemporal cortex, insula, somatosensory cortex, and cerebellum.
The biological mode of action of artemisinin, a potent antimalarial, has long been controversial. Previously we established a yeast model addressing its mechanism of action and found mitochondria the key in executing artemisinin's action. Here we present data showing that artemisinin directly acts on mitochondria and it inhibits malaria in a similar way as yeast. Specifically, artemisinin and its homologues exhibit correlated activities against malaria and yeast, with the peroxide bridge playing a key role for their inhibitory action in both organisms.
Twelve normal healthy volunteers (6 males and 6 females) undergoing yoga training for 90 days were studied for the effect of yoga on exercise tolerance. Their ages ranged from 18 to 28 years. The volunteers were taught only Pranayama for the first 20 days and later on yogic asanas were added. Sub-maximal exercise tolerance test was done on a motorized treadmill by using Balke's modified protocol, initially, after 20 days (Phase-I) and after 90 days of yoga training (Phase-II).
To determine whether the yogic Ujjayi pranayamic type of breathing that involves sensory awareness and consciously controlled, extremely slow-rate breathing including at least a period of end-inspiration breath holding in each respiratory cycle would alter oxygen consumption or not, ten males with long standing experience in pranayama, and volunteering to participate in the laboratory study were assessed. These subjects aged 28-59 yr, had normal health appropriate to their age.
There is increasing interest in the fact that breathing exclusively through one nostril may alter the autonomic functions. The present study aimed at checking whether such changes actually do occur, and whether breathing is consciously regulated. 48 male subjects, with ages ranging from 25 to 48 years were randomly assigned to different groups. Each group was asked to practice one out of three pranayamas (viz. right nostril breathing, left nostril breathing or alternate nostril breathing). These practices were carried out as 27 respiratory cycles, repeated 4 times a day for one month.
The effect of pranayama a controlled breathing practice, on exercise tests was studied in athletes in two phases; sub-maximal and maximal exercise tests. At the end of phase I (one year) both the groups (control and experimental) achieved significantly higher work rate and reduction in oxygen consumption per unit work. There was a significant reduction in blood lactate and an increase in P/L ratio in the experimental group, at rest.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
This study was conducted to assess the physiological effects of a yoga breathing practice that involves breathing exclusively through the right nostril. This practice is called surya anuloma viloma pranayama (SAV). Twelve volunteers (average age 27.2 years +/- 3.3 years, four males) were assessed before and after test sessions conducted on two consecutive days. On one day the test session involved practicing SAV pranayama for 45 minutes (SAV session). During the test period of the other day, subjects were asked to breathe normally for 45 minutes (NB session).