Despite intensive study, the relation between insulin's action on blood flow and glucose metabolism remains unclear. Insulin-induced changes in microvascular perfusion, independent from effects on total blood flow, could be an important variable contributing to insulin's metabolic action.
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of metabolic syndrome components on intermittent claudication, physical function, health-related quality of life, and peripheral circulation in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and to identify the metabolic syndrome components most predictive of each outcome measure. METHODS: Patients limited by intermittent claudication with three (n = 48), four (n = 45), or five (n = 40) components of metabolic syndrome were studied.
Lipogenesis and the metabolism of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate were studied in 23 fat biopsies from eight grossly obese patients. The first biopsy was obtained after a minimum of 12 days on a 3500 cal diet, the second biopsy after 2 wk on a 900 cal diet, and the third biopsy after an additional 2 wk on 900 cal supplemented with thiiodothyronine, 250 mug/day.Oxygen consumption and respiratory quotient declined during caloric restriction.
Effects of a diet high in fat on body weight, adiposity, and energy expenditure were investigated. Male rats were fed 8% (control) or 50% fat (by weight) for 6 mo. The high-fat group increased body weight (+26%), adipocyte size (+61%), and adipocyte number (+48%). However, food intake and resting oxygen consumption, although higher in absolute amount, were normal in that both were commensurate with the greater body mass the rats maintained.
Resting energy expenditure (REE), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition were measured in seven moderately obese women during 9 wk of dietary restriction (800 kcal/d). During weeks 4-6, subjects underwent exercise training (30 min cycling/d, 5 d/wk, at 70% VO2max). The first 3 wk of caloric restriction decreased REE by 13% (from 1437 +/- 76 to 1254 +/- 66 kcal/24 h, means +/- SEM, p less than 0.05).
Whether caloric restriction can alter the efficiency of muscular work raises important questions regarding the control of energetic coupling processes and the efficacy of exercise as a treatment for obesity. To address these issues, oxygen uptake (VO2) was determined at rest and during incremental cycle ergometry in 13 moderately obese (133 +/- 3% ideal body weight, means +/- SEM) women during weight maintenance and after 3 wk of caloric restriction (800 kcal/d). Work efficiency was calculated from the linear portion of the VO2-work rate relationship.
The effects of caloric restriction and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) were studied for 16 wk in 26 premenopausal obese women. Exercise (X) vs nonexercise (NX) was crossed with a low-fat, ad libitum-carbohydrate (AL) diet vs a restricted (R) (800 kcal) low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups.
To investigate whether a slimming diet based on alternating (low with normal) energy intakes could counteract a decrease in energy requirement, 24-h energy expenditure (24EE), sleeping energy expenditure (sleeping EE), and physical activity were determined in a respiration chamber in 27 overweight women: before weight reduction and after 4 and 8 wk of slimming. Daily alternating and continuous slimming diets were supplied. Average weight losses over 8 wk of slimming were 6.9-9.0 kg.
The effect of caloric restriction (1200 kcal/d intake) in combination with high (High) (80-90% of peak VO2) or low (Low) (40-50% of peak VO2) exercise work rates on the composition of lost body mass was determined in 27 obese women (percent fat, 36.7 +/- 4.2%; mean +/- SD). All subjects trained 3 d/wk for 8 wk, with the High (n = 14) and Low (n = 13) groups exercising for 25 and 50 min/d, respectively.
The purpose of this research was to determine if resting energy expenditure (REE) and exercise energy expenditure (EEE) differed between nonobese female cyclical dieters (n = 11) and nondieting control subjects (n = 12). Dieters were defined as having intermittent periods of caloric restriction (less than or equal to 4184 kJ/d, or less than or equal to 1000 kcal/d) for greater than or equal to 7-10 d four times in the preceding year.