Oxytocics

Publication Title: 
Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health

The third stage of labor usually is eclipsed by the excitement of the birth of a baby. Evidence shows that management of this stage can directly influence important maternal outcomes such as blood loss, need for manual removal of the placenta, and postpartum hemorrhage. Most of the large trials have compared active management of the third stage to expectant management. Active management includes routine use of cord traction and uterotonins, whereas expectant management can be characterized as one of watchful waiting.

Author(s): 
Brucker, M. C.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Prelabour rupture of membranes at term is managed expectantly or by elective birth, but it is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of planned early birth versus expectant management for women with term prelabour rupture of membranes on fetal, infant and maternal wellbeing.

Author(s): 
Dare, M. R.
Middleton, P.
Crowther, C. A.
Flenady, V. J.
Varatharaju, B.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is managed expectantly or by planned early birth. It is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening, e.g. by inducing labour. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to assess the effects of planned early birth (immediate intervention or intervention within 24 hours) when compared with expectant management (no planned intervention within 24 hours) for women with term PROM on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes.

Author(s): 
Middleton, Philippa
Shepherd, Emily
Flenady, Vicki
McBain, Rosemary D.
Crowther, Caroline A.
Publication Title: 
Harvard Review of Psychiatry

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After participating in this educational activity, the physician should be better able to 1. Identify the biological role of oxytocin in forming attachments. 2. Evaluate the relationship between various neuropsychiatric disorders and oxytocin. 3. Identify clinical implications of using oxytocin to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone integral in parturition, milk letdown, and maternal behaviors that has been demonstrated in animal studies to be important in the formation of pair bonds and in social behaviors.

Author(s): 
Cochran, David M.
Fallon, Daniel
Hill, Michael
Frazier, Jean A.
Publication Title: 
Revue Medicale Suisse

Oxytocin, an octapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus, stimulates milk election and uterine contractions. In the brain this hormone acts as a neuropeptide. It could inhibit through the GABAergic system the activity of limbic amygdala, which is involved in the response to fear. Oxytocin could also induce the protective behaviour of the mother towards its offspring through the dopaminergic system. In mankind, oxytocin plays a role in trust, empathy, generosity, stress and sexuality.

Author(s): 
Martin-du Pan, R. C.
Publication Title: 
Hormones and Behavior

This is the first experimental study on the effect of oxytocin administration on the neural processing of facial stimuli conducted with female participants that uses event-related potentials (ERPs). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects design, we studied the effects of 16 IU of intranasal oxytocin on ERPs to pictures combining performance feedback with emotional facial expressions in 48 female undergraduate students. Participants also reported on the amount of love withdrawal they experienced from their mothers.

Author(s): 
Huffmeijer, Renske
Alink, Lenneke R. A.
Tops, Mattie
Grewen, Karen M.
Light, Kathleen C.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.
van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Publication Title: 
Revue Medicale Suisse

Oxytocin, an octapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus, stimulates milk election and uterine contractions. In the brain this hormone acts as a neuropeptide. It could inhibit through the GABAergic system the activity of limbic amygdala, which is involved in the response to fear. Oxytocin could also induce the protective behaviour of the mother towards its offspring through the dopaminergic system. In mankind, oxytocin plays a role in trust, empathy, generosity, stress and sexuality.

Author(s): 
Martin-du Pan, R. C.
Publication Title: 
Zeitschrift Für Psychotherapie Und Medizinische Psychologie
Author(s): 
Lukas, K. H.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin Et Mémoires De l'Académie Royale De Médecine De Belgique

Oxytocin as an endogenous antistress hormone. The neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin (OT), besides it well known uterotonic and milk ejection activity, share also an inhibitory action on corticotrope activity. This has been demonstrated not only in pharmacological (perfusion) but also in physiological (lactation) conditions. This action is opposite to that of its "sister" hormone vasopressin (AVP) thus bringing arguments favouring the ago-antagonist ying-yang hypothesis.

Author(s): 
Legros, J. J.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The percentage of induced live birth has more than doubled from the 1990s to 2008. Induction of labour can either be based on medical indications, or performed as an elective procedure. A large range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities are available for the induction of labour and the optimal method for labour induction is unknown. This article is aimed to examine literature on non-hormonal methods for labour induction, published from January 2012 to May 2013. RECENT FINDINGS: Eleven studies were identified in our search and included into the review.

Author(s): 
Lim, Chi Eung Danforn
Ng, Rachel Wai Chung
Xu, Ke

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