Oxytocin (OT) plays a critical role in the formation of long lasting social attachments across a range of mammalian species. Raising intracerebral OT levels by intranasal administration of the neuropeptide (inOT) can also have pronounced effects on human sociocognitive functioning. inOT has been associated with increasing altruism, generosity, empathy and trust while decreasing fear, anxiety and stress reactions via neural mechanisms which are yet to be fully elucidated.
People often alter their own preferences when facing conflicting opinions expressed by others. This is known as the social conformity effect and tends to be stronger in response to opinions expressed by in-group relative to out-group members. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin promotes in-group favoritism, elicits parochial altruism, and stimulates in-group conformity under explicit social pressure.
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist. Reports from GHB abusers indicate euphoric, prosocial, and empathogenic effects of the drug. We measured the effects of GHB on mood, prosocial behavior, social and non-social cognition and assessed potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. GHB (20mg/kg) was tested in 16 healthy males, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjective effects on mood were assessed by visual-analogue-scales and the GHB-Specific-Questionnaire.
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Current psychological concepts of social and ecological responsibility emphasize the relevance of altruism, suggesting that more altruistic individuals are more likely to engage in sustainable behaviors. Emerging evidence indicates a central role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in promoting altruism. Whether this influence extends to ecological responsibility or is limited to the social domain remains unknown.
During breastfeeding or suckling, maternal oxytocin levels are raised by somatosensory stimulation. Oxytocin may, however, also be released by nonnoxious stimuli such as touch, warm temperature etc. in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, oxytocin may be involved in physiological and behavioral effects induced by social interaction in a more general context. In both male and female rats oxytocin exerts potent physiological antistress effects.
Bulletin Et Mémoires De l'Académie Royale De Médecine De Belgique
Oxytocin as an endogenous antistress hormone. The neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin (OT), besides it well known uterotonic and milk ejection activity, share also an inhibitory action on corticotrope activity. This has been demonstrated not only in pharmacological (perfusion) but also in physiological (lactation) conditions. This action is opposite to that of its "sister" hormone vasopressin (AVP) thus bringing arguments favouring the ago-antagonist ying-yang hypothesis.
Inadequate hypnosis in the absence of opioid analgesia may account for the increased incidence of awareness in cesarean delivery. An end-tidal concentration of 0.5 MAC isoflurane in 50% nitrous oxide (N(2)O) during cesarean delivery resulted in bispectral index (BIS) values >60, the threshold below which consciousness is unlikely. Our aim was to determine the BIS values achieved with the equivalent end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane and to determine if a larger concentration would consistently maintain BIS values <60.
Since hypnosis was popularly recognized in the nineteenth century, the phenomenon of hypnotizability has remained poorly understood. The capacity to increase hypnotizability has important implications because it may increase the number of people who can benefit from hypnotic interventions for psychological and medical conditions. Current theories emphasize that rapport between hypnotist and subject is pivotal to motivate the respondent to engage in strategies that allows them to suspend reality and respond to suggestions.
It has long been argued that hypnosis cannot promote behaviors that people will not otherwise engage in. Oxytocin can enhance trust in others, and may promote the extent to which a hypnotized person complies with the suggestion of a hypnotist. This double-blind placebo study administered oxytocin or placebo to high hypnotizable participants (N?=?28), who were then administered hypnotic suggestions for socially unorthodox behaviors, including swearing during the experiment, singing out loud, and dancing in response to a posthypnotic cue.