Palmitic Acid

Publication Title: 
Journal of Oleo Science

The chemical composition of volatile oil obtained from aerial parts of Pavonia odorata were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Its aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). In order to determine the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma of P. odorata, relative flavour activity (RFA) was calculated. The hydrodistillation of P. odorata afforded yellowish oil and the yield was 0.009% (w/w) with a spicy, sweet, and green odour.

Author(s): 
Kashima, Yusei
Nakaya, Satoshi
Miyazawa, Mitsuo
Publication Title: 
Journal of Medicinal Food

The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of Phaseolus vulgaris, an indigenous plant used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine in India, on blood glucose, plasma insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and fatty acid composition of total lipids in liver, kidney, and brain of normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The results show that there was a significant increase in tissue cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids in STZ diabetic rats.

Author(s): 
Pari, Leelavinothan
Venkateswaran, Subramanian
Publication Title: 
Chemical Biology & Drug Design

Ester bond hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by Phospholipase A(2) and consequent release of fatty acids are the initiating steps of inflammation. It is proposed in this study that the inhibition of phospholipase A(2) is one of the ways to control inflammation. Investigations are carried out to identify the mode of inhibition of phospholipase A(2) by the n-hexadecanoic acid. It may help in designing of specific inhibitors of phospholipase A(2) as anti-inflammatory agents. The enzyme kinetics study proved that n-hexadecanoic acid inhibits phospholipase A(2) in a competitive manner.

Author(s): 
Aparna, Vasudevan
Dileep, Kalarickal V.
Mandal, Pradeep K.
Karthe, Ponnuraj
Sadasivan, Chittalakkottu
Haridas, Madathilkovilakathu
Publication Title: 
Journal of Oleo Science

The chemical composition of volatile oil obtained from aerial parts of Pavonia odorata were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Its aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). In order to determine the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma of P. odorata, relative flavour activity (RFA) was calculated. The hydrodistillation of P. odorata afforded yellowish oil and the yield was 0.009% (w/w) with a spicy, sweet, and green odour.

Author(s): 
Kashima, Yusei
Nakaya, Satoshi
Miyazawa, Mitsuo
Publication Title: 
AIDS research and human retroviruses

The high rate of HIV-1 mutation and the frequent sexual transmission highlight the need for novel therapeutic modalities with broad activity against both CXCR4 (X4) and CCR5 (R5)-tropic viruses. We investigated a large number of natural products, and from Sargassum fusiforme we isolated and identified palmitic acid (PA) as a natural small bioactive molecule with activity against HIV-1 infection. Treatment with 100 microM PA inhibited both X4 and R5 independent infection in the T cell line up to 70%.

Author(s): 
Lee, David Y.-W.
Lin, Xudong
Paskaleva, Elena E.
Liu, Yanze
Puttamadappa, Shadakshara S.
Thornber, Carol
Drake, James R.
Habulin, Maja
Shekhtman, Alexander
Canki, Mario
Publication Title: 
Circulation Research

RATIONALE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) (alpha, gamma, and delta/beta) are nuclear hormone receptors and ligand-activated transcription factors that serve as key determinants of myocardial fatty acid metabolism. Long-term cardiomyocyte-restricted PPARdelta deficiency in mice leads to depressed myocardial fatty acid oxidation, bioenergetics, and premature death with lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. OBJECTIVE: To explore the essential role of PPARdelta in the adult heart.

Author(s): 
Wang, Peiyong
Liu, Jian
Li, Yuquan
Wu, Sijie
Luo, Jinwen
Yang, Huan
Subbiah, Ramasamy
Chatham, John
Zhelyabovska, Olga
Yang, Qinglin
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: We recently reported that palmitic acid (PA) is a novel and efficient CD4 fusion inhibitor to HIV-1 entry and infection. In the present report, based on in silico modeling of the novel CD4 pocket that binds PA, we describe discovery of highly potent PA analogs with increased CD4 receptor binding affinities (K(d)) and gp120-to-CD4 inhibition constants (K(i)). The PA analogs were selected to satisfy Lipinski's rule of drug-likeness, increased solubility, and to avoid potential cytotoxicity.

Author(s): 
Paskaleva, Elena E.
Xue, Jing
Lee, David Y.-W.
Shekhtman, Alexander
Canki, Mario
Publication Title: 
Cytokine

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine overexpressed in obese individuals that contributes to the development of diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of an extract from the bamboo Phyllostachys edulis (BEX) on lipotoxicity-induced over-production of IL-6 in metabolic cell lines. Palmitic acid (PA, 0.4mM) was used to induce lipotoxicity in murine C2C12, 3T3-L1, and Hepa6 cells.

Author(s): 
Higa, Jason K.
Panee, Jun
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of all new HIV-1 infections are acquired through sexual contact. Currently, there is no clinically approved microbicide, indicating a clear and urgent therapeutic need. We recently reported that palmitic acid (PA) is a novel and specific inhibitor of HIV-1 fusion and entry. Mechanistically, PA inhibits HIV-1 infection by binding to a novel pocket on the CD4 receptor and blocks efficient gp120-to-CD4 attachment.

Author(s): 
Lin, Xudong
Paskaleva, Elena E.
Chang, William
Shekhtman, Alexander
Canki, Mario
Publication Title: 
Diabetologia

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diminished cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) has been implicated in skeletal muscle insulin resistance, yet the mechanism(s) is unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that changes in membrane cholesterol could be a causative factor, as organised F-actin structure emanates from cholesterol-enriched raft microdomains at the plasma membrane. METHODS: Skeletal muscle samples from high-fat-fed animals and insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant human participants were evaluated.

Author(s): 
Habegger, K. M.
Penque, B. A.
Sealls, W.
Tackett, L.
Bell, L. N.
Blue, E. K.
Gallagher, P. J.
Sturek, M.
Alloosh, M. A.
Steinberg, H. O.
Considine, R. V.
Elmendorf, J. S.

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