Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 25 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials.
BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is prevalent among HIV-infected patients to reduce the toxicity of antiretroviral therapy. Ginseng has been used for treatment of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, a common side effect of some HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PI). However, it is unknown whether American ginseng (AG) can reverse insulin resistance induced by the PI indinavir (IDV), and whether these two agents interact pharmacologically.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a dynamic, idiopathic, chronic inflammatory condition associated with a high colon cancer risk. American ginseng has antioxidant properties and targets many of the players in inflammation. The aim of this study was to test whether American ginseng extract prevents and treats colitis. Colitis in mice was induced by the presence of 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water or by 1% oxazolone rectally.
To explore the radioprotective effect of a standardized North American ginseng extract (NAGE) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), a micronuclei (MN) assay was conducted in PBL obtained from 12 volunteers. NAGE (50-1000 microg/mL) and WR-1065 (1 mM and 3 mM) were applied to PBL cultures at 0 h and 90 min post-irradiation.
BACKGROUND: Former studies have shown that extract from American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) may possess certain antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. In this study, the chemical constituents of both untreated and heat-processed American ginseng and their antiproliferative activities on human breast cancer cells were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: American ginseng roots were steamed at 120 degrees C for 1 h or 2 h. The major ginsenosides in the two steamed and in the unsteamed extracts were quantitatively determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Colorectal cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancer and a leading cause of cancer related death in the US. Many currently used chemotherapeutic agents are derived from botanicals. Identifying herbal sources, including those from ginseng family, to develop better anti-cancer therapies remains an essential step in advancing the treatment of the cancer. In this article, potential roles of ginseng herbs, especially American ginseng and notoginseng, in colorectal cancer therapeutics are presented.
Hyperglycemia in diabetic conditions may cause oxidative stress in pancreatic beta-cells, leading to their dysfunction and insulin resistance within peripheral tissues. Previous studies suggest that American ginseng berry extract may have hypoglycemic effects, as well as offer antioxidant protection. We examined effects of American ginseng berry extract and ginsenoside Re in a pancreatic beta-cell line, MIN-6, to determine if these two properties are related.
Numerous effective anticancer drugs have been developed from botanical sources, and there remains a significant untapped resource in herbal medicines. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of extracts from American ginseng after steaming, the antiproliferative effects of the ginsenosides in the extracts on SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells, and their apoptotic mechanisms. American ginseng roots were steamed at 120 degrees C for 2 or 4 h. Representative ginsenosides in the unsteamed and steamed extracts were determined using HPLC.
Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to distinguish the extract of notoginseng root from that of other species in the genus Panax . The content of 12 saponins in notoginseng root extracts from different sources was evaluated. Herbal extracts from different plant parts of notoginseng, Asian ginseng, and American ginseng were also evaluated.
AIM OF THE STUDY: Ginseng has been used as general tonic for thousands of years in Asia and becomes a popular herbal medicine all over the world. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its benefit effects are less explored. Thus, we investigated the effect of a crude extract from Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) on suppression of pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages with a focus on signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling.