Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Novel prevention or therapeutic agents are needed to better manage this disease. American ginseng is a commonly used herb and is believed to have lots of health benefits, including anti-cancer activities. However there have been very few in-depth studies of the activities of this herb at the molecular level. In this report we showed that 4h-steamed American ginseng root extract (S4h) induced mitochondrial damage, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.
Panax ginseng roots, including the steamed roots, have been demonstrated to possess anticancer properties. However, there have been limited published studies on the cancer preventive effects of American ginseng. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-colorectal cancer effects of American ginseng berry extracts, and their representative bioactive compounds were evaluated. The ginsenoside content in unsteamed American ginseng berry extract (AGE) and steamed berry extract (S-AGE) were determined by HPLC.
Ulcerative colitis is a dynamic, chronic inflammatory condition associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Inflammatory cell apoptosis is a key mechanism regulating ulcerative colitis. American ginseng (AG) is a putative antioxidant that can suppress hyperactive immune cells. We have recently shown that AG can prevent and treat mouse colitis. Because p53 levels are elevated in inflammatory cells in both mouse and human colitis, we tested the hypothesis that AG protects from colitis by driving inflammatory cell apoptosis through a p53 mechanism.
AIM OF THE STUDY: Ginseng has been used as a folk medicine for thousands of years in Asia, and has become a popular herbal medicine world-wide. Recent studies have revealed that ginseng, including American ginseng, exerts antioxidant effects in the cardiovascular system; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, we investigated role of Nrf2, a master transcription factor of endogenous anti-oxidative defense systems, in the regulation of American ginseng-mediated anti-oxidative actions in cardiomyocytes.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation (IR) initiates intracellular oxidative stress through enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that attack DNA leading to cell death. Because of the diversity of IR applied in medicine, agriculture, industry, and the growing threats of global terrorism, the acquisition of radioprotectors is an urgent need for the nation. However, the applicability of radioprotectors currently under investigation is limited due to their inherent toxicity.
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Virulent factors produced by pathogens play an important role in the infectious process, which is regulated by a cell-to-cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen, which causes infections in patients with compromised immune systems and cystic fibrosis. The QS systems of P. aeruginosa use N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) as signal molecules. Previously we have demonstrated that Panax ginseng treatment allowed the animals with P. aeruginosa pneumonia to effectively clear the bacterial infection.
We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG) prevents and treats mouse colitis. Because both mice and humans with chronic colitis have a high colon cancer risk, we tested the hypothesis that AG can be used to prevent colitis-driven colon cancer. Using the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of ulcerative colitis, we show that AG can suppress colon cancer associated with colitis. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer effects of AG, we also carried out antibody array experiments on colon cells isolated at a precancerous stage.
Protopanaxadiol (PPD), an aglycon of ginseng saponins, has shown anticancer activity in earlier studies. Here, we have reported the semisynthesis of nine PPD derivatives with acetyl substitutions. Subsequently, the antiproliferative effects of these nine analogs on different human cancer cell lines have been investigated. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 showed more significant and more potent antiproliferative activity compared with PPD and other derivatives.
Ginseng occupies a prominent position in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support ginseng's use worldwide. In the past decade, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of ginseng research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the isolation and analysis of ginseng, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.
Ginseng occupies a prominent position in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Compared to the long history of use and widespread research on Asian ginseng, the study of American ginseng is relatively limited. In the past decade, some promising advances have been achieved in understanding the chemistry, pharmacology and structure-function relationship of American ginseng. To date, there is no systematic review of American ginseng.