Papua New Guinea

Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a leading health threat for low to middle-income countries and around 1.8 billion people in the Southeast Asian region and 870 million people in the Western Pacific region remain at risk of contracting malaria. Traditional medicine/traditional healer (TM/TH) use is prominent amongst populations in low- to middle-income countries and constitutes an important issue influencing and potentially challenging effective, safe and coordinated prevention and treatment strategies around malaria.

Author(s): 
Suswardany, Dwi L.
Sibbritt, David W.
Supardi, Sudibyo
Chang, Sungwon
Adams, Jon
Publication Title: 
Papua and New Guinea Medical Journal
Author(s): 
Taufa, R.
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

The apocalyptic threat of AIDS, combined with recent ethnological developments, is promoting an anthropological "rediscovery of sex." If this rediscovery is to have important and lasting effects on the development of theory, a stock-taking is in order--one which examines anthropology's historical, methodological, and practical relationship to the study of sexual behavior.

Author(s): 
Tuzin, D.
Publication Title: 
Nature

Social norms and the associated altruistic behaviours are decisive for the evolution of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order, and they affect family life, politics and economic interactions. However, as altruistic norm compliance and norm enforcement often emerge in the context of inter-group conflicts, they are likely to be shaped by parochialism--a preference for favouring the members of one's ethnic, racial or language group.

Author(s): 
Bernhard, Helen
Fischbacher, Urs
Fehr, Ernst
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

A detailed pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with 47 children from Papua New Guinea with uncomplicated falciparum or vivax malaria treated with artesunate (ARTS) suppositories (Rectocaps) given in two doses of approximately 13 mg/kg of body weight 12 h apart. Following an intensive sampling protocol, samples were assayed for ARTS and its primary active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the data.

Author(s): 
Karunajeewa, Harin A.
Ilett, Kenneth F.
Dufall, Kitiya
Kemiki, Adedayo
Bockarie, Moses
Alpers, Michael P.
Barrett, P. Hugh
Vicini, Paolo
Davis, Timothy M. E.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for > or = 72 h.

Author(s): 
Karunajeewa, Harin A.
Reeder, John
Lorry, Kerry
Dabod, Elizah
Hamzah, Juliana
Page-Sharp, Madhu
Chiswell, Gregory M.
Ilett, Kenneth F.
Davis, Timothy M. E.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

OBJECTIVE: Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is involved in the metabolism of artemisinin drugs, a novel series of antimalarials. Our aim was to analyze the prevalence of the most commonly observed CYP2B6 alleles in malaria-endemic populations of West Africa (WA) and Papua New Guinea (PNG). METHODS: Using a post-PCR ligation detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay, frequencies of CYP2B6*1A, *2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *7, and *9 were determined in WA (n=166) and PNG (n=174).

Author(s): 
Mehlotra, Rajeev K.
Ziats, Mark N.
Bockarie, Moses J.
Zimmerman, Peter A.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

OBJECTIVE: UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 are involved in the metabolism of antimalarial dihydroartemisinin and antiretroviral zidovudine. Our aim was to analyze the prevalence of UGT1A9 (chromosome 2) and UGT2B7 (chromosome 4) nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in West African (WA), Papua New Guinean (PNG), and North American (NA) populations.

Author(s): 
Mehlotra, Rajeev K.
Bockarie, Moses J.
Zimmerman, Peter A.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Community-based interventions using artemisinin-derived suppositories may potentially reduce malaria-related childhood mortality. However, their sociocultural acceptability is unknown in Papua New Guinea and a formal examination of caregiver's attitudes to rectal administration was needed to inform effective deployment strategies. Caregivers (n = 131) of children with uncomplicated malaria were questioned on their prior experience with, and attitudes to, rectal administration and then offered artesunate suppositories as treatment of their child.

Author(s): 
Hinton, Rachael L.
Auwun, Alma
Pongua, Grace
Oa, Olive
Davis, Timothy M. E.
Karunajeewa, Harin A.
Reeder, John C.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

In a treatment re-infection study of 206 Papua New Guinean school children, we examined risk of reinfection and symptomatic malaria caused by different Plasmodium species. Although children acquired a similar number of polymerase chain reaction-detectable Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections in six months of active follow-up (P. falciparum = 5.00, P. vivax = 5.28), they were 21 times more likely to develop symptomatic P. falciparum malaria (1.17/year) than P. vivax malaria (0.06/year). Children greater than nine years of age had a reduced risk of acquiring P.

Author(s): 
Michon, Pascal
Cole-Tobian, Jennifer L.
Dabod, Elijah
Schoepflin, Sonja
Igu, Jennifer
Susapu, Melinda
Tarongka, Nandao
Zimmerman, Peter A.
Reeder, John C.
Beeson, James G.
Schofield, Louis
King, Christopher L.
Mueller, Ivo

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