Iron is essential for organisms. It is mainly utilized in mitochondria for biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, hemes and other cofactors. Mitoferrin 1 and mitoferrin 2, two homologues proteins belonging to the mitochondrial solute carrier family, are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. Mitoferrin 1 is highly expressed in developing erythrocytes which consume a large amount of iron during hemoglobinization. Mitoferrin 2 is ubiquitously expressed, whose functions are less known.
We have taken an engineering approach to extending the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. Aging stands out as a complex trait, because events that occur in old animals are not under strong natural selection. As a result, lifespan can be lengthened rationally using bioengineering to modulate gene expression or to add exogenous components. Here, we engineered longer lifespan by expressing genes from zebrafish encoding molecular functions not normally present in worms. Additionally, we extended lifespan by increasing the activity of four endogenous worm aging pathways.
Previous studies have shown that polyphenols might be potent neuroprotective agents in Drosophila melanogaster wild type Canton-S acutely or chronically treated with paraquat (PQ), a selective toxin for elimination of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons by oxidative stress (OS), as model of Parkinson's disease (PD).
Black rice is rich in anthocyanin antioxidants. The present study investigated the lifespan-prolonging activity of black rice extracts (BREs) and its effect on gene expressions of CuZnSOD (SOD1), MnSOD (SOD2), catalase (CAT), methuselah (Mth) and Rpn11 involved in the antioxidant system and ageing of fruit flies. The OR wild type fly was maintained on a control diet or two experimental diets containing 10 mg ml(-1) BRE (BRE10) or 30 mg ml(-1) BRE (BRE30).
The present study investigated the anti-ageing activity of sesamin and its effect on gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methuselah (Mth) and Rpn11 in Drosophila melanogaster. Results demonstrated that 0.2†% sesamin in diet prolonged the mean lifespan of OR wild fruit flies by 12†%, accompanied by up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2, CAT and Rpn11. Sesamin at 0.2†% in diet also attenuated paraquat-induced neurodegeneration with up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and Rpn11 in OR wild fruit flies.
Paraquat (PQ)-induced pulmonary toxicity is known to result in pulmonary edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells and damage to the alveolar epithelium, which may progress to severe fibrosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their physiological inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), which degrade and remodel the excess extracellular matrix, are believed to play an important role in the development of fibrotic tissue. In this study, we examined the sequential expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ.
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease is a key enzyme in the process of base excision repair, required for the repair of spontaneous base damage that arises as a result of oxidative damage to DNA. In mice, this endonuclease is coded by the Apex gene, disruption of which is incompatible with embryonic life. Here we confirm the embryonic lethality of Apex-null mice and report the phenotypic characterization of mice that are heterozygous mutants for the Apex gene (Apex+/-). We show that Apex heterozygous mutant cells and animals are abnormally sensitive to increased oxidative stress.
Rosa damascena, or Damask rose, is a rose hybrid commonly harvested for rose oil used in perfumery and for rose water used to flavor food. The petal extract of R. damascena was recently found to decrease Drosophila melanogaster mortality without impairing reproductive fitness or metabolic rate. Here, we report that R. damascena extended both mean and maximum lifespan of the fly. The extract also protected against oxidative stress in flies, predominantly in females.
The sexual dimorphism of life span and caloric restriction effects in numerous species suggest that estradiol (E2) is protective against oxidative damage. The only direct test of E2's protective effect in mice against in vivo oxidative stress to date may have been confounded by E2's direct chemical action as an antioxidant because it was administered at very high dosages. Therefore, we have identified a low yet physiologically effective dose of E2. We then administered this dose using subcutaneous time-release pellets to ovariectomized mice.