Parasite Egg Count

Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

The first choice for treatment of Clonorchis sinensis infections is praziquantel. Experimental data suggest that artemisinin derivatives are active against C. sinensis. The efficacy of both drugs against clonorchiasis was evaluated in a pilot study in clonorchiasis patients in an endemic area in the North of Vietnam. Twenty-one patients received praziquantel 25 mg/kg o.d. for three days, the regular regimen in that area, and 21 patients were treated with artemisinin 500 mg b.i.d. for 5 days. Faecal egg counts were performed before as well as 6 days and 5 weeks after treatment.

Author(s): 
Tinga, N.
De, N.
Vien, H. V.
Chau, L.
Toan, N. D.
Kager, P. A.
Vries, P. J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Combining artesunate with existing antimalarial drugs may improve cure rates, delay emergence of resistance, and reduce transmission. We performed a randomized comparative trial to quantify the effect of adding artesunate to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Indonesia.

Author(s): 
Tjitra, E.
Suprianto, S.
Currie, B. J.
Morris, P. S.
Saunders, J. R.
Anstey, N. M.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Artemether is an efficacious antimalarial drug that also displays antischistosomal properties. Laboratory studies have found that artemether curtails the development of adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium, and thus prevents morbidity. These findings have been confirmed in clinical trials for the former two parasites; administered orally once every 2-3 weeks, artemether significantly reduced the incidence and intensity of patent infections. Here, we present the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of artemether against S.

Author(s): 
N'Goran, Eliézer K.
Utzinger, Jürg
Gnaka, Henri N.
Yapi, Ahoa
N'Guessan, Nicaise A.
Kigbafori, Silué D.
Lengeler, Christian
Chollet, Jacques
Shuhua, Xiao
Tanner, Marcel
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The activities of primaquine in combination with quinine or artesunate against asexual- and sexual-stage parasites were assessed in 176 adult Thai patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Patients were randomized to one of the six following 7-day oral treatment regimens: (i) quinine alone, (ii) quinine with tetracycline, (iii) quinine with primaquine at 15 mg/day, (iv) quinine with primaquine at 30 mg/day, (v) artesunate alone, or (vi) artesunate with primaquine. Clinical recovery occurred in all patients.

Author(s): 
Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon
Chotivanich, Kesinee
Chantra, Arun
Clemens, Ralf
Looareesuwan, Sornchai
White, Nicholas J.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

The therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alone, SP plus amodiaquine (AQ), and SP plus artesunate (AS) was assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind trial among 438 children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern Ghana. Clinical and parasitological responses were monitored for 28 days following treatment; 86%, 98% and 97% of SP-, SP + AQ-, and SP + AS-treated patients achieved adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) within 2 weeks, respectively.

Author(s): 
Mockenhaupt, Frank P.
Ehrhardt, Stephan
Dzisi, Stephen Y.
Teun Bousema, J.
Wassilew, Nasstasja
Schreiber, Jonas
Anemana, Sylvester D.
Cramer, Jakob P.
Otchwemah, Rowland N.
Sauerwein, Robert W.
Eggelte, Teunis A.
Bienzle, Ulrich
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

INTRODUCTION: In South and Central Asia resistance to chloroquine (CQ) has reached unmanageable levels, and resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is emerging. Amodiaquine (AQ) is widely used in the region, and elsewhere shows only partial resistance to CQ. In Afghanistan, one option for slowing the spread of resistance and improving treatment outcomes is the use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT).

Author(s): 
Durrani, Naeem
Leslie, Toby
Rahim, Sayed
Graham, Kate
Ahmad, Fayaz
Rowland, Mark
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes after exposure in vitro to quinine, artesunate, and primaquine was assessed in Anopheles dirus, a major vector of malaria in Southeast Asia. Mature gametocytes (stage 5) of a Thai isolate of P. falciparum were exposed to the drugs for 24 h in vitro before membrane feeding to A. dirus. After 10 days, the mosquito midguts were dissected and the oocysts were counted.

Author(s): 
Chotivanich, Kesinee
Sattabongkot, Jetsumon
Udomsangpetch, Rachanee
Looareesuwan, Sornchai
Day, Nicholas P. J.
Coleman, Russell E.
White, Nicholas J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Artemether (ART) is a well-described antimalarial with efficacy against juvenile schistosomes, with 7-day-old schistosomula being particularly susceptible. Both ART-affected worms and parasites developing from irradiated cercariae die at similar times after infection. Our aim was to determine if ART treatment of prepatent schistosomiasis japonica may result in the generation of a protective immune response. Female CBA mice were treated with a single dose of ART at defined time points after percutaneous infection with a virulent Chinese mainland strain of Schistosoma japonicum.

Author(s): 
Bartley, Paul B.
Glanfield, Amber
Li, Yuesheng
Stanisic, Danielle I.
Duke, Mary
Jones, Malcolm K.
McManus, Donald P.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology

In chronic infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis, pathogen growth and immunopathology are affected by the induction of a proper balanced Th1/Th2 response to the pathogen and by antigen-triggered activation-induced T cell death. Here, by using S. japonicum infection or schistosome antigens-immunized mouse model, or antigens in vitro stimulation, we report that during the early stage of S.

Author(s): 
Xu, Xinyu
Wen, Xiaoyun
Chi, Ying
He, Lei
Zhou, Sha
Wang, Xuefeng
Zhao, Jiaqing
Liu, Feng
Su, Chuan
Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

BACKGROUND: Morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel. The antimalarial drug mefloquine possesses interesting antischistosomal properties, yet no clinical studies have been performed. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, exploratory open-label trial to assess the efficacy and safety of mefloquine (25 mg/kg), artesunate (3 doses of 4 mg/kg), mefloquine-artesunate (3 doses of 100 mg artesunate plus 250 mg mefloquine), and praziquantel (40 mg/kg) against Schistosoma haematobium.

Author(s): 
Keiser, Jennifer
N'Guessan, Nicaise A.
Adoubryn, Koffi D.
Silué, Kigbafori D.
Vounatsou, Penelope
Hatz, Christoph
Utzinger, Jürg
N'Goran, Eliézer K.

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