Parasite Load

Publication Title: 
Revista Do Instituto De Medicina Tropical De São Paulo

The in vitro and in vivo activity of diminazene (Dim), artesunate (Art) and combination of Dim and Art (Dim-Art) against Leishmania donovani was compared to reference drug; amphotericin B. IC50 of Dim-Art was found to be 2.28 ± 0.24 µg/mL while those of Dim and Art were 9.16 ± 0.3 µg/mL and 4.64 ± 0.48 µg/mL respectively. The IC50 for Amphot B was 0.16 ± 0.32 µg/mL against stationary-phase promastigotes. In vivo evaluation in the L.

Mutiso, Joshua Muli
Macharia, John Chege
Barasa, Mustafa
Taracha, Evans
Bourdichon, Alain J.
Gicheru, Michael M.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: A significant reduction in parasite clearance rates following artesunate treatment of falciparum malaria, and increased failure rates following artemisinin combination treatments (ACT), signaled emergent artemisinin resistance in Western Cambodia. Accurate measurement of parasite clearance is therefore essential to assess the spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. The slope of the log-parasitaemia versus time relationship is considered to be the most robust measure of anti-malarial effect.

Flegg, Jennifer A.
Guerin, Philippe J.
White, Nicholas J.
Stepniewska, Kasia
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

BACKGROUND: We compared a conventional empirically derived regimen with a simplified regimen for parenteral artesunate in severe malaria. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison to assess the noninferiority of a simplified 3-dose regimen (given at 0, 24, and 48 hours) compared with the conventional 5-dose regimen of intravenous artesunate (given at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours) in African children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria with a prespecified delta of 0.2. The total dose of artesunate in each group was 12 mg/kg.

Kremsner, Peter Gottfried
Taylor, Terrie
Issifou, Saadou
Kombila, Maryvonne
Chimalizeni, Yamikani
Kawaza, Kondwana
Bouyou Akotet, Marielle K.
Duscha, Mattias
Mordmüller, Benjamin
Kösters, Katrin
Humberg, Alexander
Miller, R. Scott
Weina, Peter
Duparc, Stephan
Möhrle, Jörg
Kun, Jürgen F. J.
Planche, Tim
Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya
Simpson, Julie Anne
Köhler, Carsten
Krishna, Sanjeev
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Children are most vulnerable to malaria. A pyronaridine-artesunate pediatric granule formulation is being developed for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. METHODS: This phase III, multi-center, comparative, open-label, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial included patients aged ?12 years, bodyweight ?5 to <25 kg, with a reported history of fever at inclusion or in the previous 24 h and microscopically-confirmed uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.

Kayentao, Kassoum
Doumbo, Ogobara K.
Pénali, Louis K.
Offianan, André T.
Bhatt, Kirana M.
Kimani, Joshua
Tshefu, Antoinette K.
Kokolomami, Jack H. T.
Ramharter, Michael
de Salazar, Pablo Martinez
Tiono, Alfred B.
Ouédraogo, Alphonse
Bustos, Maria Dorina G.
Quicho, Frederick
Borghini-Fuhrer, Isabelle
Duparc, Stephan
Shin, Chang-Sik
Fleckenstein, Lawrence
Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

BACKGROUND: The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins on the Cambodian and Myanmar-Thai borders poses severe threats to malaria control. We investigated whether increasing or splitting the dose of the short-half-life drug artesunate improves parasite clearance in falciparum malaria in the 2 regions.

Das, Debashish
Tripura, Rupam
Phyo, Aung Pyae
Lwin, Khin Maung
Tarning, Joel
Lee, Sue J.
Hanpithakpong, Warunee
Stepniewska, Kasia
Ménard, Didier
Ringwald, Pascal
Silamut, Kamolrat
Imwong, Mallika
Chotivanich, Kesinee
Yi, Poravuth
Day, Nicholas P. J.
Lindegardh, Niklas
Socheat, Duong
Nguon, Chea
White, Nicholas J.
Nosten, François
Dondorp, Arjen M.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Prompt treatment of malaria attacks with arteminisin-based combination therapy (ACT) is an essential tool for malaria control. A new co-blister tablet of artesunate-mefloquine (AM) with 25 mg/kg mefloquine has been developed for the management of uncomplicated malaria attacks. This non-inferiority randomized trial, was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new formulation of AM in comparison to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in adults in Senegal.

Tine, Roger C. K.
Faye, Babacar
Sylla, Khadime
Ndiaye, Jean L.
Ndiaye, Magatte
Sow, Doudou
Lo, Aminata C.
Abiola, Annie
Ba, Mamadou C.
Gaye, Oumar
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: This multicentre study was carried out in Cameroon, Ivory Coast and Senegal to evaluate the non-inferiority of the new paediatric formulation of artesunate/amodiaquine (AS+AQ)(Camoquin-Plus Paediatric®) in suspension form versus artemether/lumefantrine (AL)(Coartem®) in the management of African children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. METHODS: It was an open randomized trial including children aged between 7 months and 7 years. The endpoints were Adequate Clinical and Parasitological Response (ACPR) at day 28, the clinical and biological tolerability.

Faye, Babacar
Kuété, Thomas
Kiki-Barro, Christiane P.
Tine, Roger C.
Nkoa, Thérèse
Ndiaye, Jean Louis A.
Kakpo, Claude A.
Sylla, Khadime
El Menan, Hervé
Gaye, Oumar
Faye, Oumar
Same-Ekobo, Albert
Moussa, Koné
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance, a long parasite clearance half-life in response to artemisinin, has been described in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southeast Asia. Few baseline half-lives have been reported from Africa, where artemisinins were recently introduced. METHODS: We treated P. falciparum malaria in 215 Malian children aged 0.5-15 years with artesunate (0, 24, 48 hours) and amodiaquine (72, 96, 120 hours).

Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.
Doumbia, Saibou
Chiang, Serena
Zeituni, Amir E.
Konate, Drissa S.
Doumbouya, Mory
Keita, Abdoul S.
Stepniewska, Kasia
Traore, Karim
Diakite, Seidina A. S.
Ndiaye, Daouda
Sa, Juliana M.
Anderson, Jennifer M.
Fay, Michael P.
Long, Carole A.
Diakite, Mahamadou
Fairhurst, Rick M.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: To establish efficacy and safety of artesunate/lumefantrine fixed-dose combination (FDC) in comparison with artemether/lumefantrine FDC in treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. METHODS: Confirmed cases of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to receive artesunate (100 mg)/lumefantrine (480 mg) (ASLF FDC) or artemether (80 mg)/lumefantrine (480 mg) (AMLF FDC) tablets for 3 days. Patients were followed up on Day 7, 14, 21 and 28. RESULTS: Of the 158 enrolled patients, 144 completed the study.

Pareek, Anil
Chandurkar, Nitin
Srivastav, Vipul
Lakhani, Jitendra
Karmakar, Partha S.
Basu, Subrata
Ray, Arnab
Pednekar, Sangeeta
Gupta, P. B.
Suthar, Nilay
Lakhani, Sucheta
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are used for diagnostic purpose in malaria-endemic areas where reliable microscopy is not available. Persistence of the antigenaemia causes over-diagnosis and may limit the usefulness of the RDT in monitoring treatment. In this study, the usefulness of histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2) and pan-specific or species-specific Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in treatment monitoring of uncomplicated falciparum malaria was carried out in an endemic setting in Myanmar.

Nyunt, Myat H.
Kyaw, Myat P.
Win, Kyu K.
Myint, Khin M.
Nyunt, Khin M.


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