Parasites

Publication Title: 
Parasitology Research

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn.

Author(s): 
Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal
Rahuman, Abdul Abdul
Bagavan, Asokan
Elango, Gandhi
Rajakumar, Govindasamy
Zahir, Abdul Abduz
Marimuthu, Sampath
Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu
Jayaseelan, Chidambaram
Publication Title: 
Nature

Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent human parasitic diseases, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. The aetiological agents of this disease are trematode flatworms (Schistosoma) that live and lay eggs within the vasculature of the host. These eggs lodge in host tissues, causing inflammatory responses that are the primary cause of morbidity. Because these parasites can live and reproduce within human hosts for decades, elucidating the mechanisms that promote their longevity is of fundamental importance.

Author(s): 
Collins, James J.
Wang, Bo
Lambrus, Bramwell G.
Tharp, Marla E.
Iyer, Harini
Newmark, Phillip A.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

With >1 million deaths annually, mostly among children in sub-Saharan Africa, malaria poses one of the most critical challenges in medicine today. Although introduction of the artemisinin class of antimalarial drugs has offered a temporary solution to the problem of drug resistance, new antimalarial drugs are needed to ensure effective control of the disease in the future. Herein, we have investigated members of the methionine aminopeptidase family as potential antimalarial targets.

Author(s): 
Chen, Xiaochun
Chong, Curtis R.
Shi, Lirong
Yoshimoto, Tadashi
Sullivan, David J.
Liu, Jun O.
Publication Title: 
Eukaryotic Cell

Intracellular calcium controls several crucial cellular events in apicomplexan parasites, including protein secretion, motility, and invasion into and egress from host cells. The plant compound thapsigargin inhibits the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), resulting in elevated calcium and induction of protein secretion in Toxoplasma gondii. Artemisinins are natural products that show potent and selective activity against parasites, making them useful for the treatment of malaria.

Author(s): 
Nagamune, Kisaburo
Beatty, Wandy L.
Sibley, L. David
Publication Title: 
BMC genomics

BACKGROUND: Classical and quantitative linkage analyses of genetic crosses have traditionally been used to map genes of interest, such as those conferring chloroquine or quinine resistance in malaria parasites. Next-generation sequencing technologies now present the possibility of determining genome-wide genetic variation at single base-pair resolution. Here, we combine in vivo experimental evolution, a rapid genetic strategy and whole genome re-sequencing to identify the precise genetic basis of artemisinin resistance in a lineage of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi.

Author(s): 
Hunt, Paul
Martinelli, Axel
Modrzynska, Katarzyna
Borges, Sofia
Creasey, Alison
Rodrigues, Louise
Beraldi, Dario
Loewe, Laurence
Fawcett, Richard
Kumar, Sujai
Thomson, Marian
Trivedi, Urmi
Otto, Thomas D.
Pain, Arnab
Blaxter, Mark
Cravo, Pedro
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: While WHO recently recommended universal parasitological confirmation of suspected malaria prior to treatment, debate has continued as to whether wide-scale use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can achieve this goal. Adherence of health service personnel to RDT results has been poor in some settings, with little impact on anti-malarial drug consumption. The Senegal national malaria control programme introduced universal parasite-based diagnosis using malaria RDTs from late 2007 in all public health facilities.

Author(s): 
Thiam, Sylla
Thior, Moussa
Faye, Babacar
Ndiop, Medoune
Diouf, Mamadou Lamine
Diouf, Mame Birame
Diallo, Ibrahima
Fall, Fatou Ba
Ndiaye, Jean Louis
Albertini, Audrey
Lee, Evan
Jorgensen, Pernille
Gaye, Oumar
Bell, David
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Chlorproguanil-dapsone (Lapdap), developed as a low-cost antimalarial, was withdrawn in 2008 after concerns about safety in G6PD deficient patients. This trial was conducted in 2004 to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of CD and comparison with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) under conditions of routine use in G6PD normal and G6PD deficient patients with uncomplicated malaria in The Gambia. We also examined the effects of a common genetic variant that affects chlorproguanil metabolism on risk of treatment failure.

Author(s): 
Dunyo, Samuel
Sirugo, Giorgio
Sesay, Sanie
Bisseye, Cyrille
Njie, Fanta
Adiamoh, Majidah
Nwakanma, Davis
Diatta, Mathurin
Janha, Ramatoulie
Sisay Joof, Fatou
Temple, Beth
Snell, Paul
Conway, David
Walton, Robert
Cheung, Yin Bun
Milligan, Paul
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Antimalarial drug resistance is a major obstacle to malaria control and eventual elimination. The routine surveillance for molecular marker of resistance is an efficient way to assess drug efficacy, which remains feasible in areas where malaria control interventions have succeeded in substantially reducing malaria transmission.

Author(s): 
Raman, Jaishree
Mauff, Katya
Muianga, Pedro
Mussa, Abdul
Maharaj, Rajendra
Barnes, Karen I.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The combination therapy of the Artemisinin-derivative Artemether (ART) with Lumefantrine (LM) (Coartem®) is an important malaria treatment regimen in many endemic countries. Resistance to Artemisinin has already been reported, and it is feared that LM resistance (LMR) could also evolve quickly. Therefore molecular markers which can be used to track Coartem® efficacy are urgently needed. Often, stable resistance arises from initial, unstable phenotypes that can be identified in vitro.

Author(s): 
Mwai, Leah
Diriye, Abdi
Masseno, Victor
Muriithi, Steven
Feltwell, Theresa
Musyoki, Jennifer
Lemieux, Jacob
Feller, Avi
Mair, Gunnar R.
Marsh, Kevin
Newbold, Chris
Nzila, Alexis
Carret, Céline K.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is auxotrophic for most amino acids. Its amino acid needs are met largely through the degradation of host erythrocyte hemoglobin; however the parasite must acquire isoleucine exogenously, because this amino acid is not present in adult human hemoglobin. We report that when isoleucine is withdrawn from the culture medium of intraerythrocytic P. falciparum, the parasite slows its metabolism and progresses through its developmental cycle at a reduced rate.

Author(s): 
Babbitt, Shalon E.
Altenhofen, Lindsey
Cobbold, Simon A.
Istvan, Eva S.
Fennell, Clare
Doerig, Christian
Llinás, Manuel
Goldberg, Daniel E.
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