Parasitology

Publication Title: 
BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

OBJECTIVE: To compare rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria with routine microscopy in guiding treatment decisions for febrile patients. DESIGN: Randomised trial. SETTING: Outpatient departments in northeast Tanzania at varying levels of malaria transmission. PARTICIPANTS: 2416 patients for whom a malaria test was requested. INTERVENTION: Staff received training on rapid diagnostic tests; patients sent for malaria tests were randomised to rapid diagnostic test or routine microscopy MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of patients with a negative test prescribed an antimalarial drug.

Author(s): 
Reyburn, Hugh
Mbakilwa, Hilda
Mwangi, Rose
Mwerinde, Ombeni
Olomi, Raimos
Drakeley, Chris
Whitty, Christopher J. M.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum is the major cause of malaria infection in the island of São Tomé, in the Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (STP), with an incidence of 40 - 50% before 2004. Since 2004, through the coordination of the Ministry of Health of STP and their Centro Nacional de Endemias (CNE), an integrated malaria control programme has been intensively deployed on the island of São Tomé. Malaria morbidity and mortality decreased by 95% after three years of effective intervention.

Author(s): 
Lee, Pei-Wen
Liu, Chia-Tai
do Rosario, Virgilio E.
de Sousa, Bruno
Rampao, Herodes Sacramento
Shaio, Men-Fang
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic reservoirs of malaria parasites are common yet are difficult to detect, posing a problem for malaria control. If control programmes focus on mosquito control and treatment of symptomatic individuals only, malaria can quickly resurge if interventions are scaled back. Foci of parasite populations must be identified and treated. Therefore, an active case detection system that facilitates detection of asymptomatic parasitaemia and gametocyte carriers was developed and tested in the Macha region in southern Zambia.

Author(s): 
Stresman, Gillian H.
Kamanga, Aniset
Moono, Petros
Hamapumbu, Harry
Mharakurwa, Sungano
Kobayashi, Tamaki
Moss, William J.
Shiff, Clive
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and treatment (EDAT) is crucial to reducing the burden of malaria in low-income countries. In the Lao PDR, this strategy was introduced in 2004-2005 and an assessment was performed at the community level in January 2007. METHODS: EDAT with malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was prospectively assessed among 36 randomized village health volunteers (VHVs) and 720 patients in six malaria-endemic provinces of Laos (three pilot provinces (PP), and three non-pilots provinces (NPP)).

Author(s): 
Phommanivong, Viengvaly
Thongkham, Khanti
Deyer, Gopinath
Rene, Jean P.
Barennes, Hubert
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Prompt, accurate diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy remains vital to current malaria control. Blood film microscopy the current standard test for diagnosis of malaria has several limitations that necessitate field evaluation of alternative diagnostic methods especially in low income countries of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic.

Author(s): 
Batwala, Vincent
Magnussen, Pascal
Nuwaha, Fred
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Malaria prevalence has recently declined markedly in many parts of Tanzania and other sub-Saharan African countries due to scaling-up of control interventions including more efficient treatment regimens (e.g. artemisinin-based combination therapy) and insecticide-treated bed nets. Although continued molecular surveillance of malaria parasites is important to early identify emerging anti-malarial drug resistance, it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain parasite samples from ongoing studies, such as routine drug efficacy trials.

Author(s): 
Ishengoma, Deus S.
Lwitiho, Sudi
Madebe, Rashid A.
Nyagonde, Nyagonde
Persson, Ola
Vestergaard, Lasse S.
Bygbjerg, Ib C.
Lemnge, Martha M.
Alifrangis, Michael
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Home-management of malaria (HMM) strategy improves early access of anti-malarial medicines to high-risk groups in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. However, limited data are available on the effectiveness of using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) within the HMM strategy.

Author(s): 
Ngasala, Billy E.
Malmberg, Maja
Carlsson, Anja M.
Ferreira, Pedro E.
Petzold, Max G.
Blessborn, Daniel
Bergqvist, Yngve
Gil, José P.
Premji, Zul
Mårtensson, Andreas
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium falciparum serve as a reservoir of parasites for malaria transmission. Identification and treatment of asymptomatic carriers within a region may reduce the parasite reservoir and influence malaria transmission in that area. METHODS: Using computer simulation, this analysis explored the impact of community screening campaigns (CSC) followed by systematic treatment of P. falciparum asymptomatic carriers (AC) with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) on disease transmission.

Author(s): 
Kern, Steven E.
Tiono, Alfred B.
Makanga, Michael
Gbadoé, Adama Dodji
Premji, Zulfiqarali
Gaye, Oumar
Sagara, Issaka
Ubben, David
Cousin, Marc
Oladiran, Fiyinfolu
Sander, Oliver
Ogutu, Bernhards
Publication Title: 
Parasites & Vectors

BACKGROUND: Research is now focused on identification of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests for early identification of schistosomal infection and evaluation of chemotherapy in field situations in China. RESULTS: This study compared loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with conventional PCR as DNA-based diagnostic techniques for the early detection of schistosomal DNA and the evaluation of chemotherapy.

Author(s): 
Wang, Cen
Chen, Lin
Yin, Xuren
Hua, Wanquan
Hou, Min
Ji, Minjun
Yu, Chuanxin
Wu, Guanling
Publication Title: 
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of malaria parasite detection from the buffy coat blood films by using capillary tube in falciparum malaria patients with negative conventional thick films. METHODS: Thirty six uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients confirmed by conventional thick and thin films were included in the study. The patients were treated with artemisinin combination therapy at Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand for 28 day.

Author(s): 
Duangdee, Chatnapa
Tangpukdee, Noppadon
Krudsood, Srivicha
Wilairatana, Polrat

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