Parasympatholytics

Publication Title: 
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

Terminalia chebula is a commonly advocated agent in Ayurveda for improving gastrointestinal motility. Charles Foster rats (150-200 gms of either sex) were divided into four groups as follows--Group 1 (n = 15) normal animals; Group II (n = 6) rats administered metoclopramide (1.35 mg/kg); Group III (n = 8) rats given atropine (0.45 mg/kg). These agents were injected intramuscularly, 30 mins before the experiment. Rats from Group IV (n = 8) were administered Terminalia chebula (100 mg/kg/day for 15 days orally).

Author(s): 
Tamhane, M. D.
Thorat, S. P.
Rege, N. N.
Dahanukar, S. A.
Publication Title: 
The Bulletin of the Tulane Medical Faculty
Author(s): 
Fujimoto, J. M.
Publication Title: 
Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, Und Verwandte Gebiete

In the treatment of hyperhidrosis stabilization of psychovegetative functions is certainly desirable. However, autogenic exercise, hypnosis, psychotherapy as well as the administration of sedatives and tranquilizers serve only as adjuvant therapeutic measures. Systemic antihidrotics, like sage or camphor, proved ineffective; anticholinergics pose the risk of side effects. For topical therapy aldehydes, organic acids, and especially metallic salts are favorable. Tanning agents are of limited effect.

Author(s): 
Hölze, E.
Publication Title: 
Gastroenterology Clinics of North America

Individualization of treatment for patients with IBS is predicated on a thorough analysis of the patient's symptoms, consideration of the reasons for seeking health care, evaluation of symptom-precipitating factors, elimination of confounding features, and the absolute knowledge of the absence of organic illness. Collecting and codifying appropriate historical data allow the physician to educate the patient with respect to the origin of his symptoms, and to enlist the patient as a partner in his future health care.

Author(s): 
Friedman, G.
Publication Title: 
The Italian Journal of Gastroenterology

The major aims of medical therapy in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are: a) to ameliorate symptoms (pain, bowel movement abnormalities, bloating) and b) to improve psychological problems of the patients. The first step of IBS therapy is the diet. In fact some forms of IBS can be ascribed to food intolerance. When abdominal pain, meteorism and constipation are the main symptoms, treatment with high-fiber diet, antispastic and antimuscarinic drugs is indicated. Sometimes amitriptyline, an antidepressant which also shows anticholinergic and analgesic properties, can be helpful.

Author(s): 
Castiglione, F.
Daniele, B.
Mazzacca, G.
Publication Title: 
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

This review summarizes the clinical evidence to support current therapies in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Fibre is indicated at a dose of at least 12 g per day in patients with constipation-predominant IBS. Loperamide (and probably other opioid agonists) are of proven benefit in diarrhoea-predominant IBS; loperamide may also aid continence by enhancing resting anal tone. In general, smooth muscle relaxants are best used sparingly, on an 'as needed' basis, as their overall efficacy is unclear.

Author(s): 
Camilleri, M.
Publication Title: 
Gastroenterology

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common disorder diagnosed by gastroenterologists and one of the more common ones encountered in general practice. The overall prevalence rate is similar (approximately 10%) in most industrialized countries; the illness has a large economic impact on health care use and indirect costs, chiefly through absenteeism. IBS is a biopsychosocial disorder in which 3 major mechanisms interact: psychosocial factors, altered motility, and/or heightened sensory function of the intestine.

Author(s): 
Camilleri, M.
Publication Title: 
Prescrire International

(1) Patients frequently complain of occasional bowel movement disorders, associated with abdominal pain or discomfort, but they are rarely due to an underlying organ involvement.

Publication Title: 
Journal of Gastroenterology

Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice.

Author(s): 
Vanuytsel, Tim
Tack, Jan F.
Boeckxstaens, Guy E.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

The two New Zealand tea-tree oils, Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium J.R. et G. Forst) and Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich) J. Thompson), Myrtaceae have been used as folk medicines for treating diarrhoea, colds and inflammation but their pharmacological action has not been investigated. Their mode of action was therefore studied on the field-stimulated guinea-pig ileum. Both Manuka and Kanuka oils induced a spasmolytic effect but Kanuka produced an initial contraction. The spasmolytic action of both oils was the result of a post-synaptic mechanism.

Author(s): 
Lis-Balchin, M.
Hart, S. L.

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