Parent-Child Relations

Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic

Definitions of psychological abuse are reviewed and a new definition proposed, operationalized as an extension of an existing measure of childhood, the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA). This semistructured, investigator-based interview is designed for use with adults to collect retrospective accounts of childhood adverse experience. The CECA extension identifies nine subtypes of psychological abuse, with a single global severity rating.

Author(s): 
Moran, Patricia M.
Bifulco, Antonia
Ball, Caroline
Jacobs, Catherine
Benaim, Kate
Publication Title: 
Family Process

In this article, the concept introduced by Lyman Wynne, that the individual develops epigenetically within the family system, is discussed and validated with data from a study of the characteristics and relationships of 27 women with borderline personality disorder and their parents. Each stage of the epigenetic process is impaired in one way or another, adversely affecting subsequent stages.

Author(s): 
Guttman, Herta A.
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Disease

An organism's behavioral and physiological and social milieu influence and are influenced by the epigenome, which is composed predominantly of chromatin and the covalent modification of DNA by methylation. Epigenetic patterns are sculpted during development to shape the diversity of gene expression programs in the organism. In contrast to the genetic sequence, which is determined by inheritance and is virtually identical in all tissues, the epigenetic pattern varies from cell type to cell type and is potentially dynamic throughout life.

Author(s): 
McGowan, Patrick O.
Szyf, Moshe
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis

With the help of attachment theory and research, the paper attempts to broaden and build on classical and current views on the superego. Attachment theory's epigenetic approach and the concept of the subliminal superego are described. The superego, it is argued, is as much concerned with safety as sex. The superego is 'heir', not just to the Oedipus complex or Klein's pre-oedipal constellation, but also to the attachment relationship.

Author(s): 
Holmes, Jeremy
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Psychiatry

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The quality of parenting that children receive can have a profound influence on their development and mental health. This article reviews articles published from late 2010 onwards that address the effects of parenting on the child's physiological and genetic systems, and how interventions can improve children's security of attachments, antisocial behaviour and other outcomes across a range of settings.

Author(s): 
Scott, Stephen
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Epigenetic processes have profound influence on gene translation and play a key role in embryonic development and tissue type specification. Recent advances in our understanding of epigenetics have pointed out that epigenetic alterations also play an important role in neurodevelopment and may increase the risk to psychiatric disorders. In addition to genetic regulation of these processes, compelling evidence suggests that environmental conditions produce persistent changes in development through epigenetic mechanisms.

Author(s): 
Kofink, Daniel
Boks, Marco P. M.
Timmers, H. T. Marc
Kas, Martien J.
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent-offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects.

Author(s): 
Kundakovic, Marija
Champagne, Frances A.
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

The hypothesis that offspring are affected by parental trauma or stress exposure, first noted anecdotally, is now supported empirically by data from Holocaust survivor offspring cohorts and other populations. These findings have been extended to less extreme forms of stress, where differential physical, behavioral, and cognitive outcomes are observed in affected offspring. Parental stress-mediated effects in offspring could be explained by genetics or social learning theory.

Author(s): 
Bowers, Mallory E.
Yehuda, Rachel
Publication Title: 
Psychopathology

The development of the brain depends on an individual's nature (genes) and nurture (environments). This interaction between genetic predispositions and environmental events during brain development drives the maturation of functional brain circuits such as sensory, motor, emotional, and complex cognitive pathways. Adverse environmental conditions such as early life stress can interfere with the functional development of emotional and cognitive brain systems and thereby increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later in life.

Author(s): 
Matas, Emmanuel
Bock, Jˆrg
Braun, Katharina
Publication Title: 
Journal of Drug Education

Substance abuse is associated with a host of harmful consequences to the substance user as well as other individuals and society as a whole. Although harm is an integral component of substance abuse, there is a dearth of research that investigates the relationship between harm and substance use problems. The goal of this study was to explore recovering substance users' retrospective perceptions of harm caused to self and others during periods of substance abuse and the resulting association with the development of problem awareness and treatment perspectives.

Author(s): 
Droege, Jocelyn R.
Stevens, Edward B.
Jason, Leonard A.

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