Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents in childhood with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and is associated with functional impairments. These children tend to display a variety of disruptive behaviors, which may worsen in adolescence. Teens with ADHD may show high levels of defiance, posing significant challenges for parents. Early efforts to understand parenting in the context of teen ADHD reveal high levels of parental stress and reactivity in response to the teen's ADHD symptoms.
Teaching mindfulness to parents as well as adolescents through a family-centered intervention approach can have a positive impact on the parent-youth relationship. In mindful parenting, caretakers are aware of their own feelings and emotions, and interact with their adolescents in a mindful way by demonstrating emotional awareness, attentive listening, nonjudgment, self-regulation, and compassion. This chapter discusses the need for family-centered mindfulness approaches in adolescence.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing: Official Publication of the Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nurses, Inc
TOPIC: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects more than 5 million American children; the likelihood of their parents experiencing stress is high, which may lead to negative outcomes. Mindful parenting is a parent training modality that teaches compassion, listening, and creative engagement with one's child, and has been shown to be effective in decreasing levels of parental stress.
Definitions of psychological abuse are reviewed and a new definition proposed, operationalized as an extension of an existing measure of childhood, the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA). This semistructured, investigator-based interview is designed for use with adults to collect retrospective accounts of childhood adverse experience. The CECA extension identifies nine subtypes of psychological abuse, with a single global severity rating.
In this article, the concept introduced by Lyman Wynne, that the individual develops epigenetically within the family system, is discussed and validated with data from a study of the characteristics and relationships of 27 women with borderline personality disorder and their parents. Each stage of the epigenetic process is impaired in one way or another, adversely affecting subsequent stages.
An organism's behavioral and physiological and social milieu influence and are influenced by the epigenome, which is composed predominantly of chromatin and the covalent modification of DNA by methylation. Epigenetic patterns are sculpted during development to shape the diversity of gene expression programs in the organism. In contrast to the genetic sequence, which is determined by inheritance and is virtually identical in all tissues, the epigenetic pattern varies from cell type to cell type and is potentially dynamic throughout life.
With the help of attachment theory and research, the paper attempts to broaden and build on classical and current views on the superego. Attachment theory's epigenetic approach and the concept of the subliminal superego are described. The superego, it is argued, is as much concerned with safety as sex. The superego is 'heir', not just to the Oedipus complex or Klein's pre-oedipal constellation, but also to the attachment relationship.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The quality of parenting that children receive can have a profound influence on their development and mental health. This article reviews articles published from late 2010 onwards that address the effects of parenting on the child's physiological and genetic systems, and how interventions can improve children's security of attachments, antisocial behaviour and other outcomes across a range of settings.
Epigenetic processes have profound influence on gene translation and play a key role in embryonic development and tissue type specification. Recent advances in our understanding of epigenetics have pointed out that epigenetic alterations also play an important role in neurodevelopment and may increase the risk to psychiatric disorders. In addition to genetic regulation of these processes, compelling evidence suggests that environmental conditions produce persistent changes in development through epigenetic mechanisms.
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent-offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects.